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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4414 matches for " Dev Raj Joshi "
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Oligodynamic Action of Silver, Copper and Brass on Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Water of Kathmandu Valley
Rajani Shrestha,Dev Raj Joshi,Jyotsna Gopali,Sujan Piya
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2959
Abstract: Traditionally certain metal pots are used to store drinking water in order to ensure safety. A study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of oligodynamic metals such as copper, silver and brass against enteric gram negative drinking water isolates such as Salmonella paratyphi , Shigella spp., E. coli (MDR), E. coli, Vibrio cholerae and Klebsiella during September 2007 to January 2008. The test was carried out by preparing broth of the respective microorganisms followed with contaminating autoclaved distilled water with 1% (by volume) of the prepared broth culture and incubating the contaminated water in the respective metal pots up to 48 h (holding time). Reduction in the microbial load was assessed by pour plating the water content in the metal pots on Nutrient agar medium in every 0, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th and 48th h of incubation (holding time). Among three test pots, copper pot showed the maximum bactericidal action compared to silver and brass pots towards most of the enteric gram negative bacterial isolates of water. Complete inhibition of tested organism was recorded within 4 to 48 hours of holding time. This study suggested the promotion of use of water pots made of oligodynamic metals such as silver and copper, and alloy such as brass to control the gram negative enteric pathogens in drinking water. Key words: Oligodynamic action; Heavy metals; Enteric bacteria DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2959 Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 10, 2009 Page: 189-193 ? ? ?
β-Lactamase-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogens from Tracheal Aspirates of Intensive Care Unit Patients at National Institute of Neurological and Allied Sciences, Nepal
Santosh Khanal,Dev Raj Joshi,Dwij Raj Bhatta,Upendra Devkota,Bharat Mani Pokhrel
ISRN Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/847569
Abstract: The widespread use of tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation to support the critically ill patients increases the risk of development of tracheobronchitis and bronchopneumonia. This cross-sectional study was conducted with an aim to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens from tracheal aspirates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) from August 2011 to April 2012 at National Institute of Neurological and Allied Sciences (NINAS), Kathmandu, Nepal. ESBL was detected by combined disk assay using cefotaxime and cefotaxime with clavulanate, AmpC β-lactamase by inhibitor-based method using cefoxitin and phenylboronic acid, and MBL by Imipenem-EDTA combined disk method. 167 bacterial strains were isolated from 187 samples and majority of them were Acinetobacter spp. followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with 32.9% and 25.1%, respectively. 68.8% of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) and Acinetobacter spp. constituted 85.4%. ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, and MBL were detected in 35 (25%), 51 (37.2%), and 11 (36.7%) isolates, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. (42.8%) were the predominant ESBL producer while Acinetobacter spp. were the major AmpC β-lactamase producer (43.1%) and MBL producer (54.5%). 1. Introduction Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening directly into the trachea to ventilate and aspirate the patient in critical care setting [1]. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) ranges from 10 to 25% of all intensive care unit (ICU) patients resulting in high mortality rate of 22–71%, which is 6–21 times higher in intubated patients [2]. The tracheostomized patients are colonized or infected with bacteria either endogenously or exogenously. Exogenous bacteria include Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and members of Enterobacteriaceae and endogenous bacteria include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. These bacteria are usually resistant to multiple antibiotics and cause either tracheobronchitis or bronchopneumonia [3]. Risk factors for colonization or infection with multidrug-resistant bacterial species include prolonged length of hospital stay, exposure to an ICU, receipt of mechanical ventilation, colonization pressure, exposure to broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, recent surgery, invasive procedures, and underlying severity of illness [4, 5]. β-Lactamases are the commonest cause of bacterial resistance to β-lactam antimicrobial agents, which are used in the
Evaluation of Hygienic Treatment of Biowastes by Anaerobic Digestion in Biogas Plants
Ram Chandra Poudel,Dev Raj Joshi,Nawa Raj Dhakal,Amrit Bahadur Karki
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2958
Abstract: Anaerobic digestion in biogas plants is one of the biological methods for safe handling of biowastes. We evaluated the fate of coliforms and pathogens in different biowaste and bioslurry samples. Bacteria were enumerated and identified by culture based microbiological methods and parasites were detected microscopically by formal-ether sedimentation technique. The mean loads of total and faecal coliforms were significantly decreased (P< 0.05) with the anaerobic digestion in the biogas plant. Out of 18 bioslurry samples, only 8 (45%) samples met the USEPA class ‘A' biosolid standard. The mean reduction in load of total and faecal coliforms was observed higher in batch digestion (P< 0.05). The mean load of total and faecal coliforms was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in human and animal excreta. The load of total and faecal coliforms was independent (P> 0.05) of the size of the biogas plant. The result of this study revealed that the degree of sanitizing biowaste depends on digestion type and nature of biowaste. Key words: Anaerobic digestion; Biogas plant; Bioslurry; Biowaste; Coliforms; Pathogens DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2958 Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 10, 2009 Page: 183-188 ?
Finite element modelling of the pull-apart formation: implication for tectonics of Bengo Co pull-apart basin, southern Tibet  [PDF]
Ganesh Raj Joshi, Daigoro Hayashi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.26082
Abstract: The tectonic deformation and state of stress are significant parameters to understand the active structure, seismic phenomenon and overall ongoing geodynamic condition of any region. In this paper, we have examined the state of stress and crustal deformation during the formation of the Beng Co pull-apart basins produced by an enéchelon strike-slip fault systems using 2D Finite Element Modelling (FEM) under plane stress condition. The numerical modelling technique used for the experiments is based on FEM which enables us to analyze the static behavior of a real and continues structures. We have used three sets of models to explore how the geometry of model (fault overlap and pre-existing weak shear zone) and applied boundary conditions (pure strike-slip, transpressional and transtensional) influence the development of state of stress and deformation during the formation of pull-apart basins. Modelling results presented here are based on five parameters: 1) distribution, orienttation, and magnitude of maximum (σH max) and minimum (σH max) horizontal compressive stress 2) magnitude and orientation of displacement vectors 3) distribution and concentration of strain 4) distribution of fault type and 5) distribution and concentration of maximum shear stress (σH max) contours. The modelling results demonstrate that the deformation pattern of the en-échelon strike-slip pull-apart formation is mainly dependent on the applied boundary conditions and amount of overlap between two master strike-slip faults. When the amount of overlap of the two master strike-slip faults increases, the surface deformation gets wider and longer but when the overlap between two master strike-slip faults is zero, block rotation observed significantly, and only narrow and small surface deform ation obtained. These results imply that overlap between two master strike-slip faults is a significant factor in controlling the shape, size and morphology of the pull-apart basin formation. Results of numerical modelling further show that the pattern of the distribution of maximum shear stress (τmax) contours are prominently depend on the amount of overlap between two master strike-slip faults and applied boundary conditions. In case of more overlap between two masters strike-slip faults, τ max mainly concentrated at two corners of the master faults and that reduces and finally reaches zero at the centre of the pull-apart basin, whereas in case of no overlap, τmax largely concentrated at two corners and tips of the master strike-slip faults. These results imply that the distribution and
Development of extensional stresses in the compressional setting of the Himalayan thrust wedge: inference from numerical modelling  [PDF]
Ganesh Raj Joshi, Daigoro Hayashi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.27083
Abstract: The estimation of contemporary tectonic stress field and deformation in active fold-and-thrust belts are imperative in identifying active geodynamics and resulting faulting phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on contemporary extensional tectonics in the overall compressive setting of the Himalayan orogen. Here we examine the regional tectonic stress field and upper crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust wedge using a 2D finite element technique, incorporating elastic rheology under plain strain condition. The elastic models demonstrate that the extensional tectonic stress and related nor- mal faulting is extensively developed in the southern front of the Himalaya at shallow crustal level (&lt; 10 km in depth). Our modelling shows a good consistency with the geological field evidences of active faulting, focal mechanism solutions of medium size earthquakes in the several sectors of the Himalaya. Results based on numerical simulation, tectonic analysis and taking geological and geophysical data into account, we interpret that the present-day extensional tectonic activity is not restricted in the southern Tibet but distributed in the different sectors of the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt co-exist with compressional structures. Modelling results also indicate that the nature, distribution and orientation of the maximum compressive stress (?1) of the Himalaya are mainly controlled by the intra crustal Main Himalayan d&#233;collement (MHT). The significant amount of shear stress/strain concentration along the MHT in the western Nepal predict that the region is prone to moderate and great future earthquakes.
The Enlightenment Tradition of Nepal: Can the Civil Society Grasp it?
Dev Raj Dahal
Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v8i0.10720
Abstract: Nepal’s history of enlightenment reflects three traditions—Vedic, Videha Janak and Buddhist. Each of these traditions searches the meaning of life, actual human condition, links with nature and ways of emancipation. The cardinal features of its native civil society are rooted into niskam karma (selfless service) to others, enlightened thinking and action. Modern civil society troubled by the turmoil of post-modernity needs to capture this ancient wisdom that sees human life in the interconnection with other species rather than isolated fragments and requires to perform many other tasks to move the this post-conflict nation from violence to stable peace. Nourishing the civic virtues of freedom, justice, solidarity, reconciliation and peace are vital nutrients.
Study on Use of Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare var. Solu Uwa) Malt and Mold Bran as Enzyme Source for Preparation of Whisky
Dev Raj Acharya,Babita Adhikari
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10597
Abstract: Naked barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) of Solu uwa variety having highest &beta-amylase activity (645 unit/gdm), total soluble solid and fermentable nitrogen germinated at 15 oC for 96 h and mold bran prepared from Aspergillus oryzae in wheat bran isolated from murcha having highest ?α-amylase activity (904 unit/gdm) incubated at 30 oC for 168h were selected as enzyme source. Mold bran, naked barley malt and white maize flour (undertailed through 1.18×1.18 mesh size as substrate) were mixed to prepare four samples: 15% naked barley malt+ 85% maize ?flour (Sample A), 15% mold bran + 85% maize ? our (Sample B), 10% naked barley malt + 5% mold bran + 85% maize ? flour ( Sample C) and 5% naked barley malt+ 10% mold bran + 85% maize (Sample D). All samples were mashed separately to prepared wort, fermented using brewery yeast (Saccharomyes cerevisiae) to prepare beer and distilled to prepare whisky and compared with wort, beer and whisky prepared from mixture of 15% commercial barley malt and 85% maize ? our (Sample E). Total soluble solid, speci?fic gravity, real extract, apparent extract, fusel oil, aldehyde, esters, titrable acidity, volatile acidity contents and sensory scores with respect to ? avor, mouthfeel after taste and overall acceptability were significantly better (p<0.05) in sample A than other samples B, C and D but comparable with sample E whereas fermentable nitrogen, viscosity, alcohol, original extract contents and real degree of fermentation were found signi? cantly better in sample B. However, sensory scores of samples were signi? cantly lower ( p< 0.05) in all samples than market whisky (Signature). Hence, without scarifying chemical and sensory scores sample D can be used to prepare whisky commercially. But harsh and pungent characteristics can be improved by maturation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10597 ? J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (44-51), 2012
Improving Forest-Based Livelihoods through Integrated Climate Change Adaptation Planning
Pratima Shrestha,Dev Raj Gautam
Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ctbijis.v2i1.10819
Abstract: Forest-based livelihoods are ruthlessly affected by climate change and other non-climatic stressors. Forests as one of the precious natural assets available in the Chitwan Annapurna area is an appropriate sector to address community and ecosystem vulnerability through adaptation works like plantation, protecting biophysical environment against hazards like landslide, floods, and water scarcity. In Nepal, Community Forest Users Groups with legal entity serves as grassroot organizations in preparation of community based adaptation plan of action (CAPA). Hariyo Ban Program, have facilitated in preparation of community based adaptation plans in remote, vulnerable and marginalized communities of different places of Gandaki river basin. The result shows community perception towards climatic and non climatic stresses and its impacts in forest based livelihoods. Climate change, its variability and extreme events have mystified people’s livelihood and forced them to further suffering. Preparation and implementation of adaptation plans has provided a ray of hope towards addressing adverse impact of climate change. Till date, 142 community adaptation plans are prepared following a methodology on integrated community adaptation planning. Adaptation planning has let community know about the prevailing threats and vulnerabilities in their communities and helped to identify adaptation measures to reduce those threats and vulnerabilities, resulting in improved livelihoods. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ctbijis.v2i1.10819 ? Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Vol.2(1) 2014: 135-146
Estimation of Gestational Age According to Crown-Rump Length in Nepalese Population: A Comparison with Previously Published Nomograms
B. Raj Joshi
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2009,
Abstract: Background/Objective: This study was performed to construct an institution specific crown-rump length (CRL) nomogram and to compare its ability to predict gestational age with previously published nomograms. "nPatients and Methods: A regression model was developed for estimation of gestational age using CRL measurements of 123 singleton fetuses in the Nepalese population. Measurements were obtained by placing the calipers of the ultrasound machine from the crown to the rump. The appropriateness of previously established CRL nomograms for predicting the gestational age was assessed in the Nepalese population to determine comparability between nomograms. "nResults: CRL corresponds to Robinson's nomogram up to 9 weeks of gestational age. There is a deficiency of 2mm at 10 weeks, 5 mm at 11 weeks and 8 mm at 12 weeks. "nConclusion: CRL measurements are used as a reliable method for estimation of the gestational age as well as a baseline for comparing gestational ages later. CRL corresponds to Robinson's nomogram up to 9 weeks gestational age. There is a deficiency of 2-8 mm from 10-12 weeks gestational age. Difference with the established nomograms may be due to ethnic differences of the fetal development. After 12 weeks, CRL measurement is unreliable due to flexion of the fetus.
Sonographic variations in common bile duct dimensions
B. Raj Joshi
Journal of Institute of Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/joim.v31i3.2993
Abstract: Introduction: Biliary diseases such as cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, hepatitis, cirrhosis and pancreatitis are common in Nepal. Cholelithiasis was present in 8 percent of the emergency patients, second to acute appendicitis. Acute cholecysistitis was present in 25 percent of these patients. 1 The most common operation in a district hospital was cholecystectomy (31%]). 2 Ultrasound plays an integral part in evaluation of biliary system. The aim of the study was also to determine whether the size of the CBD increases with age. Methods: We prospectively collected data on 100 patients aged 15 years or older who underwent abdominal sonography. The subjects had no history of biliary and pancreatic disease or operation. The CBD was measured in porta hepatis, in the distal aspect of head of pancreas and midway between these points. Linear regression was used to correlate age with the dimension. Results: There were 30 males and 70 females in the study. The subjects ranged from 15 to 80 years. The mean diameters were as follows: 3.76mm in proximal, 4.26 mm in middle, 4.90mm in distal portion of CBD. The overall measurement was 4.23mm. Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between CBD size and age. Correlation with age was best observed for the distal segment. Keywords : Biliary diseases, CBD, ultrasound. DOI: 10.3126/joim.v31i3.2993 Journal of Institute of Medicine, December, 2009; 31(3) 27-29
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