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Accelerated Aging in Tomato Seeds  [PDF]
Andreia da Silva Almeida, Cristiane Deuner, Carolina Terra Borges, Geri Eduardo Meneghello, Lilian Madruga de Tunes, Francisco Amaral Villela
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511179
Abstract:

The tomato plant (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) is a perennial, shrubby-like vegetable with high reproductive ability, which behaves like a typical annual crop. The aim of this work was to select suitable tests to assess the quality of different lots of tomato seeds. Six batches of tomato seeds were assessed for parameter values: moisture content, germination, first count, accelerated aging (standard: 40 mL of water; saline solution: 11 g NaCl/100mL of water and saturated saline solution: 40 g NaCl/100mL water) and seedling emergence in soil. Accelerated aging through the use of saturated salt solution for 48 h or 72 h at 41°C resulted in an alternative and efficient way to evaluate the physiological quality of tomato seeds. The standard accelerated aging test was less efficient and exhibited higher moisture variation.

Diferentes concentra es do inóculo de Cercospora sojina na intensidade da mancha foliar "olho-de-r " em soja Different concentrations of Cercospora sojina inoculum on the intensity of frogeye leaf spot in soybeans
Juliane Nicolodi Camera,Carolina Cardoso Deuner,Erlei Melo Reis
Summa Phytopathologica , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s0100-54052012000300010
Abstract: A mancha foliar "olho-de-r ", cujo agente causal é o fungo Cercospora sojina, causa grandes perdas no cultivo da soja, principalmente na Argentina. Em experimento conduzido em laboratório e camara climatizada, objetivou-se verificar o efeito de diferentes concentra es do inóculo de C. sojina na intensidade da mancha foliar "olho-de-r " em folíolos de soja. As concentra es de conídios utilizadas foram de 10x103, 20x103, 30x103, 40x103, 50x103 e 60x103 conídios.mL-1, com e sem espalhante. Após a inocula o dos conídios por aspers o sobre os folíolos de soja, as plantas foram mantidas com molhamento foliar de 48 horas. Decorrido este período, as plantas permaneceram em camara climatizada, em temperatura de 25 oC por 15 dias. Avaliou-se a severidade, número e diametro de les es. A concentra o de 35.000 conídios.mL-1 com espalhante gerou intensidade de doen a que possibilita a quantifica o rápida e precisa da doen a, podendo ser utilizada em futuros trabalhos de pesquisa. Frogeye leaf spot, the causative agent of which is the fungus Cercospora sojina, causes great losses to soybean crops, primarily in Argentina. The experiment, conducted in laboratory and acclimatization chamber, aimed to check the effect of different concentrations of inoculum of C. sojina on the intensity of Frogeye leaf spot in soybean leaflets. The used concentrations of conidia were 10x103, 20x103, 30x10 40x103, 50x103 and 60x103 conidia.mL-1, with and without the presence of a spreader. After the inoculation of conidia by spraying on soybean leaflets, plants were maintained under 48-hour leaf wetness. After this period, the plants remained in an acclimatization chamber at 25 oC for 15 days. The severity, number and diameter of injuries were evaluated. The concentration of 35,000 conidia.mL-1 with the presence of the spreader generated a disease intensity that enables the rapid and accurate quantification of the disease and can be used in future research.
Viabilidade e atividade antioxidante de sementes de genótipos de feij?o-miúdo submetidos ao estresse salino
Deuner, Cristiane;Maia, Manoel de Souza;Deuner, Sidnei;Almeida, Andréia da Silva;Meneghello, Géri Eduardo;
Revista Brasileira de Sementes , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-31222011000400013
Abstract: this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different salt concentrations on the germination, initial biomass and oxidative stress of four cowpea genotypes, commonly grown in the s?o josé do norte region, rs. the seeds of the genotypes amendoim, mosqueado, baio and preto were planted in rolls of "germitest" paper, soaked in a solution of sodium chloride at concentrations of zero, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mm and placed to germinate at a constant temperature of 25 oc. variables studied were: germination, first count, length and dry mass of the shoots and roots of seedlings, lipid peroxidation and the specific activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. increasing salt concentration adversely affected seed germination and also the first count of the four cowpea genotypes for the 100 mm salt treatment. joint analysis of the regression curves for the growth parameters showed the same tendency for the four genotypes, with a significant growth reduction as salt stress increased. stress effects were also evident from increased lipid peroxidation in the200 mm salt treatment, followed by reduced enzyme antioxidant activity, since in the intermediate salt concentrations, the antioxidant enzymes efficiently eliminated reactive oxygen species (ros), preventing oxidative stress. these results indicate that, at intermediate doses of salt, there was good initial development of the four cowpea genotypes and the best response was observed in the amendoim genotype.
Physiological Performance of Rice Seeds Treated to Thiamethoxam and Placed under Storage  [PDF]
Andreia da Siva Almeida, Cristiane Deuner, Carolina Terra Borges, Adilson Jauer, Geri Eduardo Meneghello, Lilian Madruga de Tunes, Francisco Amaral Villela, Paulo Dejalma Zimmer
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526396
Abstract: High-yielding crops can only achieve their potential when the appropriate technological tools are applied and weather conditions do not impose restrictions. One such technological tool is the treatment of seeds, in which different products are used and, in some cases, cause little-known effects capable of modifying the plant’s metabolism and/or its morphology. The insecticide thiamethoxam alters the plant’s physiology and morphology, accelerating its development, thus enhancing its vigor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of thiamethoxam on the physiological performance of rice seeds during storage. The research was conducted in a green-house and at the laboratory of the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel —UFPel (Federal University of Pelotas). Rice seeds from cultivars INIA Olimar and El Paso L144 were treated to a commercial product containing 350 grams of active ingredient thiamethoxam at doses of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 g per 100 kg of seed. Seeds were tested for physiological quality immediately after being treated (check treatment) and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months under storage, through germination test, cold test, accelerated aging and greenhouse emergence test. The concentration range from 200 to 400 g a.i. 100 kg-1 seed yielded the highest germination and seed vigor values for both rice cultivars during the storage period.
Physiological Performance of Common Bean Seeds Treated with Bioactivator with and without Moisture Restriction  [PDF]
Andréia da Silva Almeida, Francisco Amaral Villela Villela, Geri Eduardo Meneghello, Cristiane Deuner, Lilian Madruga de Tunes, Paulo Dejalma Zimmer, Adilson Jauer
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526394
Abstract: The commonbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important agricultural crop due to its nutritional properties. Insecticides and fungicides employed to control pests and diseases in the common bean may cause as yet unknown effects on the plant’s morphology and metabolism. Bioactivators are complex organic substances, capable of exerting modification upon growth patterns, plant DNA transcription, gene expression, metabolic enzymes and mineral nutrition. Thiamethoxam insecticide has shown positive action on the enhancement of vigor expression, phytomass accretion and the promotion of deeper root systems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of thiamethoxam on the physiological performance of common bean seeds. Seeds from cultivars Pérola and IAPAR Siriri were treated to thiamethoxam concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mL·kg-1 seed. Physiological quality was measured through tests for germination value, first count, cold test, accelerated aging and seedling shoot and root lengths, all undertaken in the presence and absence of moisture stress. Thiamethoxam stimulated the physiological performance of common bean seeds under moisture stress or in the absence of it, with levels varying according to cultivar and seed lot. The best physiological seed performance was obtained within the range of 200 mL·kg-1 seed to 400 mL·kg-1 seed.
Varia??o do teor de carboidratos em genótipos de batata armazenados em diferentes temperaturas
Bervald, Clauber Mateus Priebe;Bacarin, Marcos Antonio;Deuner, Sidnei;Trevizol, Fabio Cristiano;
Bragantia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052010000200027
Abstract: a major problem into storing potato tubers at low temperature is the sweetening (accumulation of reducing sugars). this accumulation leads to loss of commercial value of tubers when they are processed in the form of "chips". the objective of this study was to evaluate a possible change in carbohydrates levels of tubers. from different genotypes of potatoes before and after storage at 4 oc and 20 oc. the tubers were produced at embrapa clima temperado, pelotas (rs). shortly after the harvest samples were collected to determine levels of starch, sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars. the remaining tubers were divided into two lots, standardized regarding to size and stored at 4 oc and 20 oc for 33 days, and after this period the same analysis described above were performed. the starch level was poorlyaffeuted by the storage conditions. were levels of reducing sugar and total soluble carbohydrates raised when the tubers were submitted to refrigeration, however with different rates of increment between the genotypes. as for the levels of sucrose, in general, a reduction was observed for both conditions of storage. pérola and clones c-1740-11-94 and c-1786-6-94 showed the lowest accumulation of soluble sugars when stored at low temperature.
Chlorophyll a fluorescence as indicative of the salt stress on Brassica napus L.
Bacarin, Marcos Antonio;Deuner, Sidnei;Silva, Fabio Sergio Paulino da;Cassol, Daniela;Silva, Diolina Moura;
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202011000400001
Abstract: the effects of salinity stress on chlorophyll fluorescence and the growth of brassica napus l were investigated. the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient were recorded and analyzed according to the jip-test which can quantify psii performance. salt stress resulted in decreased leaf area and dry matter compared with the control treatment (0 mm nacl). the most pronounced effects of salt stress were observed with 200 mm nacl, and the hybrids displayed different levels of sensitivity to stress. the performance index (piabs) was the most sensitive parameter to salt stress, which suggests that this parameter can be used to screen genotypes for salt tolerance.
Atividade da invertase ácida solúvel e da insolúvel em tubérculos de batata recondicionados após o armazenamento sob diferentes temperaturas
Ferreira, Ladislau Soares;Deuner, Sidnei;Bacarin, Marcos Antonio;Bervald, Clauber Mateus Prieble;Zanatta, Eduardo Ricieri;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542007000600002
Abstract: the aim of this work was to quantify the activity of the acid soluble invertase enzymes and insoluble invertase in tubers of potato genotypes: atlantic, pérola, asterix and c-1786-6-94 stored in different temperatures with recondition. one determined the activity of the acid soluble enzymes and insoluble invertase at 0 30 and 60 days of storage. in 30 days of storage the activity of the two enzymes was stimulated by the temperature at 4oc. the recondition from 4o c to 20o c reduced the activity of the insoluble and acid soluble invertase in all cultivars, however in different way among them. the storage at 12oc and the reconditioned from 12o c to 20o c had little influence on the activity of the acid soluble invertase. the activity of the insoluble invertase under 12o c was increased at 30 and 60 days of recondition in c-1786-6-94 clone and atlantic cultivar. the storage at 20oc did not alter the activity of the acid soluble invertase enzyme and insoluble invertase for the cultivars studied.
Aduba??o foliar e via solo de nitrogênio em plantas de milho em fase inicial de desenvolvimento
Deuner, Sidnei;Nascimento, Ronaldo do;Ferreira, Ladislau Soares;Badinelli, Pablo Gerson;Kerber, Romel Silva;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542008000500001
Abstract: consider the most important nutrient in the increment of grain gield and also the proteic level, nitrogen (n), in addition of this fact, this nutrient is the component that most increases the production cost of maize crop. this study aimed to verify whether the application of leaf nitrogen influences the accumulation of proteins and parameters of growth of young plants of maize compared to the application of urea via soil. for both, young plants of the hybrid maize br 206 received applications of urea as a source of n via leaf and soil at concentrations of zero, 0.5% and 1.0%. the plants were grown in a greenhouse being held three applications of n, the first for six days after the emergency (dae) in a volume of 10 ml per plant and the following two to 10 and 14 dae with 20 ml each. at 18 dae the plants were collected and analyses proceeded. for plant height, root volum, leaf area, dry weigth of leaf area and root, one verified a higher efficiency of leaf fertilization, mainly at 0,5% level of urea. the application of urea 1,0% via soil caused a significative increase in leaf protein levels. these results suggest that leaf fertilization may be an efficient mode to complement what is uptaken by the roots, although it should not be used as a unique source of inorganic n to the plants.
Bioativador no desempenho fisiológico de sementes de arroz
Almeida, Andréia da Silva;Carvalho, Ireni;Deuner, Cristiane;Tillmann, Maria angela André;Villela, Francisco Amaral;
Revista Brasileira de Sementes , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-31222011000300013
Abstract: rice is one of the most important and traditional cereal crops grown as it is a staple food of most of the world population. rio grande do sul state is an important rice producer, accounting for 50% of brazilian production, 80% of which is irrigated rice. the systemic insecticide thiamethoxam is transported within the plant and can activate various physiological processes, such as protein expression. these proteins interact with stress defense mechanisms, allowing the plant to better support adverse conditions such as drought, low ph, high soil salinity, free radical stress from high temperatures, toxic effects of high aluminium levels, pest damage, wind, hail, virus attack and nutrient deficiency. the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of thiamethoxam on the physiological performance of rice seeds. seeds of the rice cultivars el paso, br irga 410, irga 424 and br olimar were treated with thiamethoxam concentrations of 0.0, 50, 100, 200, 400 ml per 100 kg of seeds. physiological seed quality was evaluated by tests of germination, first count germination, cold, accelerated aging and seedling shoot and root lengths. thiamethoxam treatment of rice seeds resulted in improved seed physiological quality with the dosage of 300 to 400 ml of product per 100 kg giving the best result.
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