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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15860 matches for " Design Decision Tool "
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Analyzing target user group |s preferences and product form design specification through web-based 2-dimensinoal design decision tool
Jih-Shyong Lin,Shih-Yen Huang
International Journal of Business Research and Management , 2010,
Abstract: In the modern market where consumerism is running higher and the product life span is getting shorter, it is one of the challenges for the marketing and design departments in enterprises to know how to get a thorough grasp of the consumer |s preference and potential target user group. With the wide spread and growth of the internet, a web-based survey is not influenced by time and space factors, making it easier for designers to have an in-depth understanding of the consumer |s preferences towards products. Based upon the 2-dimensional image scale, 120 college students from Taiwan and Japan were invited to evaluate 27 pencil sharpener samples in terms of their preferences and intention of purchase. From the survey, competitive portable pencil sharpeners were identified for the references of new product design and development. The results indicated that such a web-based 2-dimensional image survey system could offer real time help in product segmentation and the selection of competition products as well as the target user group with the output systematic diagrams and tables. Furthermore, morphological analysis for product form elements and quantification type I analysis could help designers and marketing managers set up proper policies for product form design for the target user groups in the design and marketing of new product development.
A framework for the use of decision-support tools at various spatial scales for the management of irrigated agriculture in West-Africa  [PDF]
Joost Wellens, Farid Traoré, Mamadou Diallo, Bernard Tychon
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48A002

The Kou watershed, situated in the Southwestern part of Burkina Faso, has succumbed since a couple of decades in a typical theater play of anarchistic water management. With its 1800 km2, this small watershed holds the second largest city of Burkina Faso (Bobo-Dioulasso), a former State ran irrigated rice scheme and several informal agricultural zones. Despite the abundance on water resources, most water users find themselves regularly facing to water shortages due to an increase in population and low irrigation efficiencies. Local stakeholders are hence in need of easy-to-use and low-cost decision support tools for the monitoring and exploitation of the water resources at different spatial and user levels. A top-to-bottom string of adapted water management tools has been successfully installed to tackle the problems: from watershed (top) to field level (bottom), passing by the 1200 ha irrigation scheme. Land use maps have been derived from time-series of free satellite images. Combined with data from a network of hydrologic gauging stations, regional water use maps were established. SIMIS was put in place for the public-private management of the regions irrigated rice scheme. Day to day water use on irrigated plots was followed by soil humidity and crop canopy measurements. A simple field-cropwater balance model Aqua Crop was used by extension workers to draft optimal irrigation charts. Each tool was applied independently, requiring only limited data; but their combined results contributed to an improved integrated water management.

An Implementation of a Decision Support Tool to Assess Treatment of Emerging Contaminants in India  [PDF]
Zara Visanji, Seyed M. K. Sadr, Fayyaz A. Memon
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.104023
Abstract: Emerging contaminants have been increasingly studied over the past decade to improve the understanding of their fate, occurrence and toxicological effects on the environment and human health. Originally wastewater treatment plants were not designed to remove these pollutants of emerging concern. However, research is now focusing on determining which existing treatment unit processes are suited to their removal. This research sets out to determine suitable treatment options for thirty nine emerging contaminants including various Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care products. The treatment options used in this study are taken from a developed decision support tool (WiSDOM) which formulates wastewater trains/packages for treatment of wastewater in India. The tool also evaluates the performance of each optimal solution in terms of removal of conventional pollutants (such as biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, faecal coliform etc.), using multi-objective genetic algorithms and multi-criteria decision analysis. An Excel Spreadsheet Program (ESP) was developed as an add-on to the tool, allowing the ESP to take an initial concentration of any of the thirty nine emerging contaminant and pass it through the treatment trains (generated/selected by the WiSDOM tool) to determine the removal efficiency. Three scenarios were developed to analyse the removal of emerging contaminants in India. The scenarios were designed to capture the influence of different socio-economic contexts and wastewater characteristics on the treatment technology selection. The tool generated results suggest that the use of constructed wetlands can remove a large proportion of emerging contaminants, resulting in low energy requirements and operational costs and wildlife habitats. However, the land requirement for this process is not always suited to urban areas in India. Advanced oxidation processes were also efficient at removing emerging contaminants. However, the energy requirements for this process were high. Emerging contaminants have different physical and chemical properties; therefore, future evaluations of each chemical should be monitored separately to generate suitable technologies suited to optimal removal.
DIMZAL: A Software Tool to Compute Acceptable Safety Distance  [PDF]
Paul-Antoine Bisgambiglia, Jean-Louis Rossi, Romain Franceschini, Fran?ois-Joseph Chatelon, Paul Antoine Bisgambiglia, Lucile Rossi, Thierry Marcelli
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2017.71002
Abstract: The scope of this work is to present a multidisciplinary study in order to propose a tool called DIMZAL. DIMZAL forecasts fuelbreak safety zone sizes. To evaluate a safety zone and to prevent injury, the Acceptable Safety Distance (ASD) between the fire and firefighters is required. This distance is usually set thanks to a general rule-of-thumb: it should be at least 4 times the maximum flame length. A common assumption considers an empirical relationship between fireline intensity and flame length. In the current work which follows on from an oral presentation held at the VII International Conference on Forest Fire Research in Coimbra in 2014, an alternative way is proposed: a closed physical model is applied in order to quantize the ASD. This model is integrated in a software tool, which uses a simulation framework based on Discrete EVent system Specification formalism (DEVS), a 3D physical real-time model of surface fires developed at the University of Corsica and a mobile application based on a Google SDK to display the results
Perspectives d'amélioration du conseil prévisionnel de fertilisation azotée à la parcelle en Wallonie par l'utilisation du logiciel AzoFert
Abras, M.,Goffart, JP.,Destain, JP.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2013,
Abstract: Prospects for improving the provisional nitrogen fertilization recommendation at field scale in Wallonia using the AzoFert software. The French software AzoFert for nitrogen fertilization recommendation is currently under adaptation and validation for soil and climatic conditions in Wallonia by the CRA-W within the INTERREG IV project "SUN" (Sustainable Use of Nitrogen). This adaptation has raised the need for a change of values in the parameter tables and catalogs relating to meadow residues, crop residues, catch crop practices, crops, organic amendments and soil type. Data from 25 trials of increasing nitrogen fertilizer rates conducted by CRA-W between 1996 and 2011 in cereal, potato and vegetable crops located on loam and sandy loam soil were used to validate the AzoFert software adapted for Wallonia. The difference between nitrogen rates recommended on the one hand by AzoFert or Azobil (software currently used in the reference lab for Nitrate [Requasud] at CRA-W) and the optimal dose of nitrogen fertilizer assessed in each trial on the other hand shows that, in most cases, AzoFert gives a recommendation closer to the optimum than Azobil . The nitrogen uptake measured in the plants collected in the unfertilized control plot also shows a higher correlation with nitrogen supply from the soil assessed by AzoFert than for plants assessed by Azobil . The more accurate estimate of the mineralization of organic sources, probably linked to the dynamic soil nitrogen supply approach integrated into AzoFert , may explain the gain in the greater accuracy of the AzoFert recommendation in comparison with that of Azobil .
A Mathematical Model for Deriving Optimal Leasing Policies of a Satellite Operator  [PDF]
Elena Sarri, George P. Papavassilopoulos
Open Journal of Optimization (OJOp) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojop.2014.34005
Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model of optimal leasing allocation of satellite band-width and services in terms of expected revenues and associated risk. This tool meets the need of a Satellite Operator to determine the optimal leasing policy of the available bandwidth. A methodology and a tool for techno-economic evaluation of satellite services are developed. The output of the tool enables the policy decisions to be customized by the attitude toward risk that the company wants to apply at each time period. The study is based on inputs concerning data and services from an existing Satellite Operator and addresses a real situation. Demand and pricing data have been gathered from the international market. The decision making tool is given in the set-up of a decision tree presenting quantified alternative leasing policies and risks. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to measure the efficiency of the model.
Testing of Decision Making Tools for Village Land Use Planning and Natural Resources Management in Kilimanjaro Region  [PDF]
Anthony Z. Sangeda, Frederick C. Kahimba, Reuben A. L. Kashaga, Ernest Semu, Christopher P. Mahonge, Francis X. Mkanda
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.413044

This paper focuses on participatory testing of decision making tools (DMTs) at village level to assist in development of land use plans (LUPs) for sustainable land management (SLM) in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Data were collected using conditional surveys through key informant interviews with the project’s district stakeholders in each district, focused group discussions with selected villagers and participatory mapping of natural resources. Soil health, land degradation, carbon stock, and hydrological conditions were assessed in the seven pilot villages in all seven districts using DMTs as part of testing and validation. Results indicated soils of poor to medium health, and land degradation as portrayed by gullies and wind erosion in lowlands and better in uplands. Carbon and forest disturbance status could not be assessed using one-year data but hydrological analysis revealed that water resources were relatively good in uplands and poor in the lowlands. Challenges with regard to land use include increased gully erosion, decreased stream flow, reduced vegetation cover due to shifting from coffee with tree sheds to annual crops farming, cultivation near water sources, and overgrazing. Empowering the community with decision making tools at village level is essential to ensure that village land uses are planned in a participatory manner for sustainable land and natural resources management in Kilimanjaro and other regions in Tanzania.

Risk Assessment of Business Process Re-Engineering Projects  [PDF]
Boyd A. Nicholds, John P. T. Mo
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.33007

Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) inevitably involves change. However, modern business organizations are extremely complex. Setting improvement targets in BPR too high without considering the company’s capability and its external and internal interactions will have little chance of achieving the set targets, which means project failure. Unfortunately, forecasting of the BPR outcomes is currently a wild guess to management. This paper describes a risk model that estimates a process improvement capability score and integrates with a performance effectiveness function to assess the likelihood of meeting performance gain targets from process improvement projects undertaken by companies. The risk assessment can assist management to set more realistic performance gain targets for process improvement projects with a better chance of success.

La concepción heideggeriana del artefacto en Grundbegriffe der Metaphysik
Parente, Diego;
Signos filosóficos , 2008,
Abstract: in his course die grundbegriffe der metaphysik. welt-endlichkeit-einsamkeit (1929/1930) heidegger devises a distinction between organ and tool whose objective is to characterize organism in order to compare it to man. the objective of this article is to examine the limits between the organic and the artificial in order to determine to what extent such distinctions -although they could be considered marginal in the german philosopher's work- can contribute to understand the ontological status of artefacts. this paper tries to show how these heideggerian thesis about the distinction organ/tool can be reinterpreted in a coherent way through the idea of technical design.
A Study of the Ergonomics Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (C.T.S)
M Abdolvahab
Modern Rehabilitation , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Aim :It has been well established in the Literature that some jobs are associated with C.T.S. excessive Force, repetitive task, Lack of rest and problems in the work place setup and tools are among the most common causes of the injuries.The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation ship between C.T.S Leading to pressure syndromes with the jobs. Material and Method: In this retrospective study 253 patients were selected from among 3817 patients. The questionnaires were completed using the appropriate information extracted from the patients. The data were analyzed using special Statistical programs.Results: The results indicated that there was a correlation between the jobs of house wife, construction worker and office employee and C.T.S Leading to pressure syndromes. The causes of the injuries were similar to those reported in the literature excessive force, repetitive task, lack of rest and problems in the work place setup and tool design.Conclusion& discussion: It is, therefore, concluded that most of the C.T.S can be easily prevented by appropriate training of the work-force and taking the safety measures in to consideration when designing the tools. In addition, ergonomic principle should be observed while setting up the work places.
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