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DNA fingerprinting of water yam (Dioscorea alata) cultivars in Brazil based on microsatellite markers
Siqueira, Marcos VBM;Dequigiovanni, Gabriel;Corazon-Guivin, Mike A;Feltran, José C;Veasey, Elizabeth A;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362012000400015
Abstract: this study aimed to fingerprint 36 water yam (dioscorea alata) accessions using microsatellite markers. ten accessions were collected in local markets from several municipalities in brazil, eight were obtained from the 'instituto agron?mico de campinas' (iac) germplasm collection and eighteen were collected directly from growers from s?o paulo state. a total of nine microsatellite loci were used in the analysis. loci revealed high polymorphism verified by elevated pic values (0.57-0.77), and by high gene diversity and shannon-wiener indices (0.69 and 1.29 on average, respectively). the accessions were classified into two groups based on clustering analysis. one group contained mostly accessions from the iac collection, including a commercial cultivar acquired in a market in the city of cuiabá, mato grosso state. the second group was composed of most accessions, including those collected directly from growers and markets in s?o paulo, a few accessions from the iac collection, and an accession from puerto rico, named 'florida', which is the most cultivated in brazil. several duplicates were identified in this study, including accessions obtained from two farmers in mogi gua?u and mogi mirim, s?o paulo state. however, some of these accessions were allocated in different sub-groups, within this second group. results suggested the hypothesis of different origins for accessions currently cultivated in brazil. similar accessions obtained from different municipalities revealed the commercialization of the same accessions at different locations.
Identification of a Simple Sequence Repeat molecular-marker set for large-scale analyses of pear germplasm
Gabriel Dequigiovanni,Fernanda Rech,Felippe George Gatti Gomes,Ivan Somensi Cerotti
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2012,
Abstract: Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) are molecular markers suitable to assess the genetic variation of germplasm resources; however, large-scale SSR use requires protocol optimization. The present work aimed to identify SSR markers, developed for pear and other fruit species that are effective in characterizing pear germplasm collections and in demonstrating their use in providing support for genetic breeding programs. From a total of 62 SSR markers investigated, 23 yielding reproducible and polymorphic patterns were used to genotype a sample of 42 pear accessions of the Brazilian Pear Germplasm Bank (PGB). When compared to these 23 SSR markers, a subset of eleven markers, selected based on He, PIC and PId, was used to distinguish individual accessions and perform cluster analysis with similar efficacy. Genetic diversity analysis clustered the European, Japanese and Chinese accessions in distinct groups. This markers subset constitutes a valuable tool for several applications related to pear genetic resources management and breeding.
Identification of a Simple Sequence Repeat molecular-marker set for large-scale analyses of pear germplasm
Dequigiovanni, Gabriel;Rech, Fernanda;Gomes, Felippe George Gatti;Cerotti, Ivan Somensi;Faoro, Ivan;Oliveira, Paulo Ricardo Dias de;Quecini, Vera;Ritschel, Patricia;
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-70332012000200004
Abstract: simple sequence repeats (ssr) are molecular markers suitable to assess the genetic variation of germplasm resources; however, large-scale ssr use requires protocol optimization. the present work aimed to identify ssr markers, developed for pear and other fruit species that are effective in characterizing pear germplasm collections and in demonstrating their use in providing support for genetic breeding programs. from a total of 62 ssr markers investigated, 23 yielding reproducible and polymorphic patterns were used to genotype a sample of 42 pear accessions of the brazilian pear germplasm bank (pgb). when compared to these 23 ssr markers, a subset of eleven markers, selected based on he, pic and pid, was used to distinguish individual accessions and perform cluster analysis with similar efficacy. genetic diversity analysis clustered the european, japanese and chinese accessions in distinct groups. this markers subset constitutes a valuable tool for several applications related to pear genetic resources management and breeding.
Evaluation of the toxic effect of insecticide chlorantraniliprole on the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)  [PDF]
Roxelle Ethienne Ferreira Munhoz, Thaís Souto Bignotto, Naiara Climas Pereira, Cláudia Regina das Neves Saez, Rafaela Bespalhuk, Ver?nica Aureliana Fassina, Graziele Milani Pessini, Mayarha Patrícia Dequigiovanni Baggio, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Rose Meire Costa Brancalh?o, Shunsuke Mizuno, Willian Shigeaki Aita, Maria Aparecida Fernandez
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.34051
Abstract:

The silkworm Bombyx mori feeds exclusively on mulberry leaves and is highly sensitive to pesticides in general. Although mulberry plantations are free of agrochemicals, pesticide drift can occur. Chlorantraniliprole, a novel insecticide of the anthranilic diamides class, has been used to control pests in field crops. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of different concentrations of chlorantraniliprole on B. mori silkworm commercial Brazilian hybrids. To evaluate the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, bioassays were carried out and data on the lethal concentrations, symptomatology, morphology and variables of silk production were collected. Results indicated that B. mori is extremely sensitive to chlorantraniliprole, even in low concentrations. The highest silkworm mortality rates were observed in the two highest chlorantraniliprole concentrations, 0.2 and 0.1 ppm. Although lower chlorantraniliprole concentrations did not cause death of all the silkworm larvae, various symptoms of toxicity were observed: feeding cessation, regurgitation, late development and incomplete ecdysis. Such symptoms reflect the morphological changes we observed in the midgut epithelium, which affected nutrient uptake and metabolism, and even the production of cocoons. Exposed larvae also produced thin-shelled cocoons, which constitutes a serious economic problem because this type of cocoon is not useful for the silk industry. The results provided herein confirm the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole in silkworm larvae. Therefore, we strongly suggest that, competent authorities of the National Health Surveillance Agency, in pesticide management should take measures to reduce or eliminate the use of chlorantraniliprole in areas nearest to silkworm cultivation.

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