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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3743 matches for " Denis Brouillet "
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Grasping the World: Object-Affordance Effect in Schizophrenia
Jessica Sevos,Anne Grosselin,Jacques Pellet,Catherine Massoubre,Denis Brouillet
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/531938
Abstract: For schizophrenic patients, the world can appear as deprived of practical meaning, which normally emerges from sensory-motor experiences. However, no research has yet studied the integration between perception and action in this population. In this study, we hypothesize that patients, after having controlled the integrity of their visuospatial integration, would nevertheless present deficit in sensory-motor simulation. In this view, we compare patients to control subjects using two stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) tasks. Experiment 1 is performed to ensure that visuo-spatial integration is not impaired (Simon Effect). Experiment 2 replicates a study from Tucker and Ellis (1998) to explore the existence of sensory-motor compatibility between stimulus and response (Object Affordance). In control subjects, the SRC effect appears in both experiments. In schizophrenic patients, it appears only when stimuli and responses share the same spatial localization. This loss of automatic sensory-motor simulation could emerge from a lack of relation between the object and the subject’s environment. 1. Introduction For the embodied theories of cognition, it is largely accepted that cognitive processes in healthy subjects are deeply rooted in the sensory-motor systems. The cognitive functioning is carried out dynamically, throughout a context, a situation, a task, and a body status [1]. More particularly, perception and action are inseparable; indeed, perception has to be understood as an action guided towards its aim. This embodied view of mind is in accordance with Merleau-Ponty’s [2] phenomenology of perception in which the organism and environment are coupled. For him, the body’s actions are the conditions for entering into a cognitive relationship with the world. In relation to both motor and perceptual abilities of the subject, the objects of the world are perceived as “practicable” objects. In the embodied theories of cognition, the concept of affordance, originally introduced by Gibson [3] in 1977, has a key role. Indeed, affordances depend on the context, perceptual characteristics of objects and on the body; objects, and environment are seen in terms of opportunity of actions [4]. The visual representation of an object comes from the binding between its visual properties and related action potentialities via sensory-motor simulations. Both behavioral [5–9] and brain imaging studies [10–12] indicate that the representation of perceived objects incorporates motor information. This action-perception binding thus allows all living being to automatically
植物学报 , 1998,
Extending Multi-Period Pluto and Tasche PD Calibration Model Using Mode LRDF Approach  [PDF]
Denis Surzhko
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2014.44026
The intention of this paper is to propose extension to the Pluto and Tasche PD calibration model for low default portfolios that could produce more stable LRDF estimates and eliminate the necessity of quartile choice, while preserving adequate level of conservatism. Multi-period Pluto and Tasche model allows us to fulfill Basel committee requirements regarding long-term LRDF calibration even for portfolios with no observable defaults. The main drawback of that approach is a very strict requirement for the sample: only borrowers that are observable to the bank within each point on long-term horizon could be used as observations. Information regarding rating migrations, borrowers that arrived in the portfolio after sample cutoff date and borrowers that left the portfolio before the end of long-term calibration horizon should be excluded from the sample. Proposed Mode approach pairs Pluto and Tasche model with mode LRDF estimator (proposed by Canadian OSFI), as the results, it eliminates drawbacks of the original Pluto and Tasche model.
Co-lethality studied as an asset against viral drug escape: the HIV protease case
Sophie Brouillet, Thomas Valere, Emmanuelle Ollivier, Laurent Marsan, Anne Vanet
Biology Direct , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-5-40
Abstract: From an amino acid sequence alignment of the HIV protease, we detected the potential SL couples, potential SL sets, and invariant positions. From the 3D structure of the same protein we focused on the ones that were close to each other and accessible on the protein surface, to possibly bind putative drugs. We aligned 24,155 HIV protease amino acid sequences and identified 290 potential SL couples and 25 invariant positions. After applying the distance and accessibility filter, three candidate drug design targets of respectively 7 (under the flap), 4 (in the cantilever) and 5 (in the fulcrum) amino acid positions were found.These three replication-critical targets, located outside of the active site, are key to our anti-escape strategy. Indeed, biological evidence shows that 2/3 of those target positions perform essential biological functions. Their mutational variations to escape antiviral medication could be lethal, thus limiting the apparition of drug-resistant strains.This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Shamil Sunyaev and Claus Wilke.RNA viruses alone include 350 different human pathogens. Most are the agents of newly emerging diseases. Recent concerns for actual or feared pandemics (SARS, avian flu, or swine flu viruses) all raised the challenge to quickly come up with solutions. Worldwide, over 100 million influenza cases occur each year, 170 million people carry HCV, and 33 million HIV. RNA viruses generally have very high mutation rates as they use polymerases which cannot find and fix mistakes, and are therefore unable to conduct genomic repair of damaged genetic material. Under selective pressure, this error-prone replication can confer drug resistance. Since AIDS appeared, many new drugs have been created and used against RNA viruses, which in turn readily evolved drug-resistant strains, a now predictable process and an unprecedented public health issue. HIV mutant strains that escape antiviral compounds have been extensively documented [1], and
Identification of molecular complexes in M81
N. Brouillet,M. Kaufman,F. Combes,A. Baudry,F. Bash
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We report about high spatial resolution observations made with the IRAM interferometer of the CO emission from a 1.1x1.1 kpc plane-of-sky field on a spiral arm of Messier 81. With a beam of 5''(90 pc), we identify 6 giant molecular cloud complexes with virial masses of about 10^6 Msun, including one associated with a giant HII region. The deduced N(H2)/I(CO) ratios are about 3 times larger on average than those measured near the solar neighborhood, suggesting that the complexes are not self-gravitationally bound except, possibly, for the complex associated with the giant HII region; they could be the average of several clouds of mass a few 10^5 Msun and diameter < 100 pc. The linewidths are very narrow with respect to the measured sizes, so that the size-linewidth relation for M 81 clouds is very different from that in the Milky Way. The narrow linewidths imply smaller virial masses than for Galactic complexes of the same size, and this is consistent with the weaker CO emission from the GMCs in M 81. We conclude from these observations that the molecular medium in M 81 differs from that in the Milky Way.
Generalization of the Second Order Vector Potential Formulation for Arbitrary Non-Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates Systems from the Covariant Form of Maxwell's Equations  [PDF]
Denis Prémel
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.410055
Abstract: A great number of semi-analytical models, notably the representation of electromagnetic fields by integral equations are based on the second order vector potential (SOVP) formalism which introduces two scalar potentials in order to obtain analytical expressions of the electromagnetic fields from the two potentials. However, the scalar decomposition is often known for canonical coordinate systems. This paper aims in introducing a specific SOVP formulation dedicated to arbitrary non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinates systems. The electromagnetic field representation which is derived in this paper constitutes the key stone for the development of semi-analytical models for solving some eddy currents moelling problems and electromagnetic radiation problems considering at least two homogeneous media separated by a rough interface. This SOVP formulation is derived from the tensor formalism and Maxwell’s equations written in a non-orthogonal coordinates system adapted to a surface characterized by a 2D arbitrary aperiodic profile.
A paradigm for a skin graft substitute  [PDF]
Denis E. Solomon
Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine (OJRM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrm.2013.22005

Skin grafts have remained relatively unchanged since their introduction as a medical treatment for burns/wounds. This paper seeks to open an academic discussion as to whether their use-by date has now been passed. A skin graft substitute is described in a paradigm using fine leaf gelatine sheets which inherently possess several distinct advantages including, discarding the harvest of autologous tissue from patient donor sites. A clinical study will be needed to determine its suitability taken together with the understanding that experimental animal studies may not provide unequivocal answers to its in situ modus operandi.

Interpretivistic Conception of Quantification: Tool for Enhancing Quality of Life?  [PDF]
Denis Larrivee, Adriana Gini
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34A003
Abstract: Quality of life is fast becoming the standard measure of outcome in clinical trials, residential satisfaction, and educational achievement, to name several social settings, with the consequent proliferation of assessment instruments. Yet its interpretation and definition provoke widespread disagreement, thereby rendering the significance of quantification uncertain. Moreover, quality, or qualia, is philosophically distinct from quantity, or quantitas, and so it is unclear how quantification can serve to modulate quality. Is it thus possible for quantification to enhance quality of life? We propose here that an interpretivistic conception of quantification may offer a more valid approach by which to address quality of life in sociological research.
Human dermal reticular fibroblasts at confluence display a signature micro pattern in vitro  [PDF]
Denis E. Solomon
Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine (OJRM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrm.2013.24014

This paper sets out to demonstrate that scraping of the flat dorsal surface of human dermis with a scalpel blade and cell plating without centrifugation can lead to the recognition and identification of the individual packing micro pattern of dermal reticular fibroblasts at confluence. The characteristic alignment of papillary and reticular fibroblasts at right angles to each other led to the positive identification of reticular fibroblasts. A non-enzymatic means of sub-culturing (passaging), which yields fully functional, healthy cells with normal, phenotypic morphology is also described. Implications for published subcutaneous wound healing studies are discussed as well as the confluent reticular fibroblast configuration, interpreted as ananatomic site identity code,which may be the address of a specific fibroblast gene pattern expression.

Scientific Viewpoints with Emphasis on Dermal Cellular Regeneration in Wound Sites  [PDF]
Denis E. Solomon
Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine (OJRM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrm.2014.31003

The human dermis presents an ongoing problem for regenerative medicine. Current medical management uses various acellular dermal matrices on wound sites. The challenge for scientists is to examine, then to question accepted conventional wisdom and to present new concepts. In this paper, Autologous Cell Therapy will be described by using cell culture of autologous dermal fibroblasts and their extracellular matrix as a foundation for rebuilding the dermis in conditioned wound beds. This proposal seems to create a conflict with the medical approach to keeping a wound bed moist.

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