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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 506 matches for " Demian Battaglia "
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Synchronous Chaos and Broad Band Gamma Rhythm in a Minimal Multi-Layer Model of Primary Visual Cortex
Demian Battaglia ,David Hansel
PLOS Computational Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002176
Abstract: Visually induced neuronal activity in V1 displays a marked gamma-band component which is modulated by stimulus properties. It has been argued that synchronized oscillations contribute to these gamma-band activity. However, analysis of Local Field Potentials (LFPs) across different experiments reveals considerable diversity in the degree of oscillatory behavior of this induced activity. Contrast-dependent power enhancements can indeed occur over a broad band in the gamma frequency range and spectral peaks may not arise at all. Furthermore, even when oscillations are observed, they undergo temporal decorrelation over very few cycles. This is not easily accounted for in previous network modeling of gamma oscillations. We argue here that interactions between cortical layers can be responsible for this fast decorrelation. We study a model of a V1 hypercolumn, embedding a simplified description of the multi-layered structure of the cortex. When the stimulus contrast is low, the induced activity is only weakly synchronous and the network resonates transiently without developing collective oscillations. When the contrast is high, on the other hand, the induced activity undergoes synchronous oscillations with an irregular spatiotemporal structure expressing a synchronous chaotic state. As a consequence the population activity undergoes fast temporal decorrelation, with concomitant rapid damping of the oscillations in LFPs autocorrelograms and peak broadening in LFPs power spectra. We show that the strength of the inter-layer coupling crucially affects this spatiotemporal structure. We predict that layer VI inactivation should induce global changes in the spectral properties of induced LFPs, reflecting their slower temporal decorrelation in the absence of inter-layer feedback. Finally, we argue that the mechanism underlying the emergence of synchronous chaos in our model is in fact very general. It stems from the fact that gamma oscillations induced by local delayed inhibition tend to develop chaos when coupled by sufficiently strong excitation.
Quantumlike Diffusion over Discrete Sets
Demian Battaglia,Mario Rasetti
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9601(03)00679-0
Abstract: In the present paper, a discrete differential calculus is introduced and used to describe dynamical systems over arbitrary graphs. The discretization of space and time allows the derivation of Heisenberg-like uncertainty inequalities and of a Schrodinger-like equation of motion, without need of any quantization procedure.
Minimizing energy below the glass thresholds
Demian Battaglia,Michal Kolá?,Riccardo Zecchina
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.70.036107
Abstract: Focusing on the optimization version of the random K-satisfiability problem, the MAX-K-SAT problem, we study the performance of the finite energy version of the Survey Propagation (SP) algorithm. We show that a simple (linear time) backtrack decimation strategy is sufficient to reach configurations well below the lower bound for the dynamic threshold energy and very close to the analytic prediction for the optimal ground states. A comparative numerical study on one of the most efficient local search procedures is also given.
Dynamic information routing in complex networks
Christoph Kirst,Marc Timme,Demian Battaglia
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this generic mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyze how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs coact to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine non-local network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.
Optimization by Quantum Annealing: Lessons from hard 3-SAT cases
Demian Battaglia,Giuseppe Santoro,Erio Tosatti
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.71.066707
Abstract: The Path Integral Monte Carlo simulated Quantum Annealing algorithm is applied to the optimization of a large hard instance of the Random 3-SAT Problem (N=10000). The dynamical behavior of the quantum and the classical annealing are compared, showing important qualitative differences in the way of exploring the complex energy landscape of the combinatorial optimization problem. At variance with the results obtained for the Ising spin glass and for the Traveling Salesman Problem, in the present case the linear-schedule Quantum Annealing performance is definitely worse than Classical Annealing. Nevertheless, a quantum cooling protocol based on field-cycling and able to outperform standard classical simulated annealing over short time scales is introduced.
Temporal decorrelation of collective oscillations in neural networks with local inhibition and long-range excitation
Demian Battaglia,Nicolas Brunel,David Hansel
Quantitative Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.238106
Abstract: We consider two neuronal networks coupled by long-range excitatory interactions. Oscillations in the gamma frequency band are generated within each network by local inhibition. When long-range excitation is weak, these oscillations phase-lock with a phase-shift dependent on the strength of local inhibition. Increasing the strength of long-range excitation induces a transition to chaos via period-doubling or quasi-periodic scenarios. In the chaotic regime oscillatory activity undergoes fast temporal decorrelation. The generality of these dynamical properties is assessed in firing-rate models as well as in large networks of conductance-based neurons.
Model-Free Reconstruction of Excitatory Neuronal Connectivity from Calcium Imaging Signals
Olav Stetter,Demian Battaglia ,Jordi Soriano,Theo Geisel
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002653
Abstract: A systematic assessment of global neural network connectivity through direct electrophysiological assays has remained technically infeasible, even in simpler systems like dissociated neuronal cultures. We introduce an improved algorithmic approach based on Transfer Entropy to reconstruct structural connectivity from network activity monitored through calcium imaging. We focus in this study on the inference of excitatory synaptic links. Based on information theory, our method requires no prior assumptions on the statistics of neuronal firing and neuronal connections. The performance of our algorithm is benchmarked on surrogate time series of calcium fluorescence generated by the simulated dynamics of a network with known ground-truth topology. We find that the functional network topology revealed by Transfer Entropy depends qualitatively on the time-dependent dynamic state of the network (bursting or non-bursting). Thus by conditioning with respect to the global mean activity, we improve the performance of our method. This allows us to focus the analysis to specific dynamical regimes of the network in which the inferred functional connectivity is shaped by monosynaptic excitatory connections, rather than by collective synchrony. Our method can discriminate between actual causal influences between neurons and spurious non-causal correlations due to light scattering artifacts, which inherently affect the quality of fluorescence imaging. Compared to other reconstruction strategies such as cross-correlation or Granger Causality methods, our method based on improved Transfer Entropy is remarkably more accurate. In particular, it provides a good estimation of the excitatory network clustering coefficient, allowing for discrimination between weakly and strongly clustered topologies. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of our method to analyses of real recordings of in vitro disinhibited cortical cultures where we suggest that excitatory connections are characterized by an elevated level of clustering compared to a random graph (although not extreme) and can be markedly non-local.
Dynamic Effective Connectivity of Inter-Areal Brain Circuits
Demian Battaglia ,Annette Witt,Fred Wolf,Theo Geisel
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002438
Abstract: Anatomic connections between brain areas affect information flow between neuronal circuits and the synchronization of neuronal activity. However, such structural connectivity does not coincide with effective connectivity (or, more precisely, causal connectivity), related to the elusive question “Which areas cause the present activity of which others?”. Effective connectivity is directed and depends flexibly on contexts and tasks. Here we show that dynamic effective connectivity can emerge from transitions in the collective organization of coherent neural activity. Integrating simulation and semi-analytic approaches, we study mesoscale network motifs of interacting cortical areas, modeled as large random networks of spiking neurons or as simple rate units. Through a causal analysis of time-series of model neural activity, we show that different dynamical states generated by a same structural connectivity motif correspond to distinct effective connectivity motifs. Such effective motifs can display a dominant directionality, due to spontaneous symmetry breaking and effective entrainment between local brain rhythms, although all connections in the considered structural motifs are reciprocal. We show then that transitions between effective connectivity configurations (like, for instance, reversal in the direction of inter-areal interactions) can be triggered reliably by brief perturbation inputs, properly timed with respect to an ongoing local oscillation, without the need for plastic synaptic changes. Finally, we analyze how the information encoded in spiking patterns of a local neuronal population is propagated across a fixed structural connectivity motif, demonstrating that changes in the active effective connectivity regulate both the efficiency and the directionality of information transfer. Previous studies stressed the role played by coherent oscillations in establishing efficient communication between distant areas. Going beyond these early proposals, we advance here that dynamic interactions between brain rhythms provide as well the basis for the self-organized control of this “communication-through-coherence”, making thus possible a fast “on-demand” reconfiguration of global information routing modalities.
Source coding by efficient selection of ground states clusters
Demian Battaglia,Alfredo Braunstein,Jo?l Chavas,Riccardo Zecchina
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.72.015103
Abstract: In this letter, we show how the Survey Propagation algorithm can be generalized to include external forcing messages, and used to address selectively an exponential number of glassy ground states. These capabilities can be used to explore efficiently the space of solutions of random NP-complete constraint satisfaction problems, providing a direct experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in large-size instances. Finally, a new lossy data compression protocol is introduced, exploiting as a computational resource the clustered nature of the space of addressable states.
Transfer Entropy Reconstruction and Labeling of Neuronal Connections from Simulated Calcium Imaging
Javier G. Orlandi, Olav Stetter, Jordi Soriano, Theo Geisel, Demian Battaglia
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098842
Abstract: Neuronal dynamics are fundamentally constrained by the underlying structural network architecture, yet much of the details of this synaptic connectivity are still unknown even in neuronal cultures in vitro. Here we extend a previous approach based on information theory, the Generalized Transfer Entropy, to the reconstruction of connectivity of simulated neuronal networks of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show that, due to the model-free nature of the developed measure, both kinds of connections can be reliably inferred if the average firing rate between synchronous burst events exceeds a small minimum frequency. Furthermore, we suggest, based on systematic simulations, that even lower spontaneous inter-burst rates could be raised to meet the requirements of our reconstruction algorithm by applying a weak spatially homogeneous stimulation to the entire network. By combining multiple recordings of the same in silico network before and after pharmacologically blocking inhibitory synaptic transmission, we show then how it becomes possible to infer with high confidence the excitatory or inhibitory nature of each individual neuron.
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