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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1895 matches for " Demand "
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Generalized Demand Densities for Retail Price Investigation  [PDF]
Philip Thomas, Alec Chrystal
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.33034
Abstract:

The paper introduces generalized demand densities as a new and effective way of conceptualizing and analyzing retail demand. The demand density is demonstrated to contain the same information as the demand curve conventionally used in economic studies of consumer demand, but the fact that it is a probability density sets bounds on its possible behavior, a feature that may be exploited to allow near-exhaustive testing of possible demand scenarios using candidate demand densities. Four such demand densities are examined in detail. The Household Income demand density is based on the assumption that a persons maximum acceptable price (MAP) for an item is proportional to his household after-tax income. The Double Power demand density allows the mode to be located anywhere in the range between zero and the highest MAP possessed by anyone in the target population. The two-parameter, Rectangular demand density, the simplest model that a retailer may employ, has the useful feature that it may be matched relatively easily to any unimodal demand density and hence may act as its approximate proxy. The Kinked demand density is derived from the kinked demand curve sometimes used as a relatively uncomplicated way of conceptualizing the effects of oligopoly. The central measures of each of these demand densities are derived: mean price, mode, median, optimal and, when appropriate, the mean of the matched Rectangular demand density. In a further result arising from the use of demand densities, it is shown that stable trading at the kink price will not occur if the demand curve is kinked and convex.

Characterization of Peaks and Valleys of Electricity Demand. Application to the Spanish Mainland System in the Period 2000-2020  [PDF]
Fermín Moreno
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2011.34066
Abstract: Energy planning must anticipate the development and strengthening of power grids, power plants construction times, and the provision of energy resources with the aim of increasing security of supply and its quality. This work presents a methodology for predicting power peaks in mainland Spain’s system in the decade 2011-2020. Forecasts of total electricity demand of Spanish energy authorities set the boundary conditions. The accuracy of the results has successfully been compared with records of demand (2000-2010) and with various predictions published. Three patterns have been observed: 1) efficiency in the winter peak; 2) increasing trend in the summer peak; 3) increasing trend in the annual valley of demand. By 2020, 58.1 GW and 53.0 GW are expected, respectively, as winter and summer peaks in a business-as-usual scenario. If the observed tendencies continue, former values can go down to 55.5 GW in winter and go up to 54.7 GW in summer. The annual minimum valley of demand will raise 5.5 GW, up to 23.4 GW. These detailed predictions can be very useful to identify the types of power plants needed to have an optimum structure in the electricity industry.
TALEP ANAL Z VE TALEP NG RüSü: B R ZEL HASTANEDE UYGULAMA (DEMAND ANALYSIS AND DEMAND FORECASTING: APPLICATION FOR A PRIVATE HOSPITAL)
?zlem ?ZER,Merve ERK?LET
Dokuz Eylül üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study, at a private hospital in Ankara between October 2009-October 2010 to determine particulars of outpatients and inpatients that using health care service and therefore profile of outpatients and inpatients build up in the future and thus aid to health care management who make planning of patient services. The population consists of 270 patients. The data collected from patient satisfaction surveys and electronic patients records are used by public relations department of hospital. Chi square test is implemented in statical analysis of the data. At the end of study, significant level of correlation between educational background of patients with patients’ electing to hospital in next health problems are found 0,059 and reached the conclusion that correlation is not significant. In addition to when are analyzed results about profession of patients, significant level of correlation are found 0,01 and concluded that correlation is significant.
The Effect Tariff Policy before and after WTO Agreement Signature to Sedan Made in Japan Demand in Indonesia  [PDF]
Didi Tarmidi
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.44018
Abstract: The focus of this research is to know the effect of tariff policy of automobile demand before and after World Trade Organization (WTO). Analysis method used in this research is quantitative analysis with simultaneous model and estimated using Two Stage Least Square (TSLS) approach, and the next analysis is a test of hypothesis using partial and simultaneous test. Based on the result of the estimation, it can be concluded that the independent variable in the first model, car price and PDB per capita is positive and dummy variable of economic crisis is negative to Japanese automobile demand. And independent variable in the second model, demand and tariff (the first dummy) is positive but fuel price and tariff (the second and the third dummy) are negative to Japanese automobile price. In other words, the influence of tariff policy in 1980-1994 is positive, and those in 1995-1997 and 1998-2005 are negative to Japanese automobile demand.
Demand Function for Croatian Tourist Product: A Panel Data Approach Aper Title  [PDF]
Lorena ?kufli?, Igor ?tokovi?
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.21008
Abstract: Croatia as a small country with GDP of 14.255 US $ per capita and 44.6 milliard Euro of gross external debt has a strong need for a development process and construction of production bases which, in the future, will be capable to generate revenue for the return of foreign debt. As a small country, with relatively low produc- tion potential, the service sector seems the only way for achieving the necessary income to servicing foreign debt, and to start new development cycle. In Croatia, tourism sector participates with approximately 3% in the structure of GDP, while revenues from tourism has been growing constantly, from 10.6% (1996) to 22% (2008) in GDP. This sector employs about 3.5 of total employees and has a significant multiplicative effect on the overall economy, where the multiplier of tourist consumption is around 2.5. According to statistics, tourism activity tends to grow faster than the total Croatian production. The high import dependence and the weak export propulsive of goods, in last decade, had a negative impact on external trade sector, furthermore, the trade deficit reached 7.3 billion Euros, while revenues from tourism amounted 6.4 billion Euros (2009). In the Mediterranean basin the most significant Croatian competitors are France, Spain and Italy, states that are also among the five most desirable destinations in the world, while Croatia with 11 million arrivals and 56.3 million overnights (2009), was ranked around 20th place. Tourism is a sector that involves a multiplic-ity of economic activities responding to differentiated demands with specific characteristics at the national and international levels. Identifying the main determinants of tourism demand is becoming imperative for the country whose development process depends heavily on tourist revenues. Tourism brings obvious economic benefits, with the two most important being the generation of foreign exchange and revenues as well as the creation of jobs. Therefore, it is no surprise that tourism is an important economic activity in many parts of the world, including Croatia. Given the importance of the tourism, the aim of this paper is to design the model of demand for Croatian tourist product.
How Do Foreign and Domestic Demand Affect Exports Performance? An Econometric Investigation of Indonesia’s Exports  [PDF]
Rudy Rahmaddi, Masaru Ichihashi
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.31005
Abstract: This paper explores the impacts of foreign and domestic demand on Indonesia’s exports within demand and supply frameworks using aggregate data of 1971 - 2007. In contrast to many previous studies employing a single equation model, the paper investigates such relationship by dealing with plausible simultaneity between quantity and price within demand and supply of exports using a simultaneous equation framework, which also enables one to distinct between pull (foreign demand) and push (cost) factors of exports. To capture effects of secular and cyclical movements on exports, we dissect income variables into trend and business cycle as proxies of productive capacity and capacity utilization rate, respectively. Our results suggest that both demandand supply-price elasticity are elastic, and secular and cyclical movements may have contrast effects on exports. The production capacity is positively attributed to exports performance, while the capacity utilization negatively affects exports, which confirms the customary version of domestic-demand pressure hypothesis. Some economic shocks and policies also play roles in determining exports performance. All estimated coefficients are statistically stable over the period under study. The findings draw policy implications namely the importance of price-based policy, provision of adequate and sound infrastructures, and further development of human capital-based industrialization.
Explication of Emergency Dwellings in Turkey in the Context of Cultural Continuity: Fieldwork in Alagoz Village  [PDF]
Ferah Akinci, Kader Da?istanli
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2012.12003
Abstract: The study is a fieldwork in Alag?z Village in Bing?l which is situated in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Ma- jority of the traditional houses in Alag?z Village were destroyed by earthquakes. Standard type houses were built within the scope of “Earthquake houses” project by the state under the initiative for closing the gap of housing. State adopted the resolution of demolishing the traditional houses and implemented such resolution as a consequence of standard type earthquake houses which do not fit with the cultural life of the region are not preferred by their users. Population who compulsorily started to live in “Earthquake Houses” began to utter their complaints. Even, they attempted to reconstruct and complete their partially demolished houses and returned to live in their traditional old houses. Forwhy, these houses fit with their social lives. Within this context the houses in the village compose of Traditional Houses, Earthquake Houses, houses they developed by being adversely affected from the Earthquake Houses. Each type of housing will be taken up within the scope of the study and their physical, social tissues will be analyzed and scrutinized, and as a result of this detailed study, conception of the region that is transmitted from past to today will be defined. In the study, it is emphasized that traditions which reached from past to today can not be ignored and should be taken into consideration by all means. Within this context, houses located in the region were analyzed as per their periods, opinions of the users were obtained and requests were highlighted in accordance with these findings and the houses which were developed in consequence of the requirements were scrutinized. Outputs were assessed on behalf of protecting the continuity in set- tlement and finalized with the clues of what are the obvious things to be done. For permanence of the settlement it is required to analyze the culture which preserved and protected its existence. Especially, in the countries such as Turkey, it is required to resolve the dynamics of the migration in consequence of various facts from rural areas to urban centers. It is required to provide approaches which may satisfy their needs and close their gaps by supporting the segment who is pleased with living in its village rather than creating new formations.
Effectively Using the QRFM to Model Truck Trips in Medium-Sized Urban Communities  [PDF]
Michael D. Anderson, Mary C. Dondapati, Gregory A. Harris
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2013.33018
Abstract: This paper analyses the effectiveness of applying the Quick Response Freight Manual (QRFM) to model freight transportation. Typically, freight transportation is indirectly modeled or as an after-thought. Increasing freight volumes, coupled with cost saving strategies such as just-in-time delivery systems, require that transportation policymakers analyze infrastructure needs and make investment decisions that explicitly include freight volumes as a component. This paper contains a case study using a medium sized urban area travel model and the QRFM trip generation and a distribution methodology to provide a framework for freight planning that can be used to improve resource allocation decisions.
Analysis on the Development of Producer Services in China—Based on Intermediate Demand of Three Industries  [PDF]
Yong Yang
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.83042
Abstract: From the intermediate demand perspective of the industry, agriculture and services, this paper analyzes the problems on the development of producer services in China and gives some related causes. To accelerate the development of producer services in an even better fashion, we think the following measures should be taken: developing the high-end manufacturing and promoting the interaction between manufacturing and producer services; attaching equal importance to imported technology and independent innovation; improving the promotion and training for agricultural technology and optimizing agriculture production structure; developing the modern service industry; enhancing the supplying quality of producer services.
Employing Water Demand Management Option for the Improvement of Water Supply and Sanitation in Nigeria  [PDF]
Emma E. Ezenwaji, Bede M. Eduputa, Joseph E. Ogbuozobe
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.78051
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to assess the importance of Water Demand Management (WDM) strategy to the improvement of water supply and sanitation in Nigeria. Persistent water supply shortages and poor sanitation have since remained important features of the Nigerian urban and rural communities. Most often governmental solution to these problems has been to develop and exploit the available water resources and the level of sanitation for the people. This predominant approach which is also known as augmentation method is supply driven with the primary purpose being how best to meet the perceived water and sanitation demand. One of the major disadvantages of this approach is the huge financial involvement associated with it. Conversely, quite recently water resource managers have begun to direct attention on how consumers can be motivated to regulate the amount and manner in which they use and dispose water to alleviate pressure on freshwater supplies. This new approach is known as water demand management. It is demand driven in that consumers determine their own water need. Employment of WDM by consumers especially in water scarce areas as was discussed in the paper will decrease the amount of water use, thereby limiting unnecessary financial expenditure in exploiting new sources to meet the ever increasing demand.
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