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Influence of Physico-Chemical Factors, Zooplankton Species Biodiversity and Seasonal Abundance in Anzali International Wetland, Iran  [PDF]
Delaram Golmarvi, Maryam Fallahi Kapourchali, Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mohammadreza Fatemi, Rezvan Mousavi Nadoshan
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2017.71007
Abstract: Anzali International wetland is located in the south coast of the Caspian Sea. Physicochemical analysis and zooplankton survey of the wetland were carried out on monthly basis for the period of one year from January 2012 to December 2013 at 9 different stations of Anzali wetland and its related channel to the Caspian Sea. Water temperature of the wetland followed more or less similar trend as that of air temperature. pH determined alkaline nature of the wetland ranging between 7.05 to 9.47, dissolved oxygen was recorded in the range of 3.36 mg/l to 10.51 mg/l while other parameters recorded were water temperature (10 to 23 C), Nitrate (0.48 to 4.36 mg/l), Total Phosphates (0.15 to 0.67 mg/l), Salinity (220 to 692 mg/l), Electrical Conductivity (235 to 1369 μs/cm), TDS (246 to 1971 mg/l), BOD (2 to 36 mg/l) and COD (4 to 74 mg/l). During study period, total 60 species of zooplankton were identified in four main groups such as Protozoa (22 sp.), Rotifera (29 sp.), Copepoda (5 sp.) and Cladocera (4 sp.). The highest numbers of zooplankton were recorded in summer months and lowest in winter which is the second rainy season of this area. The water body is receiving domestic discharge, agricultural run-off and industrial wastes leading to large amount of nutrient inputs to the ecosystem which indicates the eutrophic statue of the wetland. The aim of present study was to investigate the interrelationship between physicochemical factors and zooplankton population in context of their seasonal abundance.
Study of Zooplankton Species Structure and Dominance in Anzali International Wetland  [PDF]
Delaram Golmarvi, Maryam Fallahi Kapourchali, Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mohammadreza Fatemi, Rezvan Mousavi Nadoshan
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2018.82011
Anzali International wetland is one of the most important places for various organisms such as fishes. Zooplankton are the first consumers in the ecosystem, and they are perfect food for the larvae of fishes. The present study conducted monthly during January 2012 to December 2013 in 9 different stations with zooplankton population and chemical characteristics analysis such as water temperature ranged from 10°C - 22°C, pH determined alkaline nature of the wetland ranged from 7.05 to 9.47, dissolved oxygen was recorded in the range of 3.36 mg/l to 10.51 mg/l, nitrate was ranged between 0.48 - 4.36 mg/l, total phosphates was between 0.15 - 0.67 mg/l, salinity was recorded between 220 - 692 mg/l, TDS was determined between 246 - 1971 mg/l, BOD and COD was also recorded 2 - 36 mg/l and 4 - 74 mg/l respectively. Total 61 zooplankton species were found belonging to 4 groups: Protozoa (22 sp.), Rotatoria (29 sp.), Copepoda (5 sp.) and Cladocera (4 sp.). Rotatoria were found dominating other groups of zooplankton. Kruskal Wallis test showed that there was significant difference between density of zooplankton in different stations, months and seasons (P ≤ 0.05) and significant differences were found between densities of different zooplankton phylum (P ≤ 0.05). The water body is continuously receiving domestic discharge leading to large amount of nutrient inputs and high amount of phosphate and nitrate in the water body indicates that water is eutrophic in nature.
The effect of Echinophora-platyloba on primary dysmenorrhea
Masoumeh Delaram
Behbood , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Dysmenorrhea occurred in about fifty percent of women with regular menstruation. Different methods were applied for treatment and medications with lower side effects are preferred. Aim of this study was to detect the effect of echinophora-platyloba on primary dysmenorrhea in students.Methods: This single blind clinical trial was carried out in single students with primary dysmenorrhea in the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences. Sixty students were randomly divided into two groups receiving; the echinophora-platyloba extracts or placebo. Visual analogue scale was used to detect the severity of desmenorrhea. At the end of first and second month after intervention, the severity of pain was assessed and compared with before intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square, t and mann-whitney tests and P<0.05 considered significant.Results: There was no significant difference between total score of dysmenorrhea before and after intervention (34.74±10.86 vs. 35.55±11.16) in echinophora-platyloba and placebo groups. There was a significant decrease in echinophora-platyloba group (22.49±7.33) compare to the placebo (28.93±9.91) after two-month intervention (P<0.001).Conclusion: Echinophora-platyloba extract reduced the severity of dysmenorrhea. Administration of echinophora-platyloba is recommended to reduce of dysmenorrhea in the students.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Clinical Education from the Viewpoints of Nursing and Midwifery Students in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
M Delaram
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: The viewpoints of students as basic elements of education, can improve the process of education. Thus this study was designed to detect the Strengths and weaknesses of clinical education from the viewpoints of nursing and midwifery students. Methods: In this cross–sectional study, 150 senior nursing and midwifery students in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences were asked about the strengths and weaknesses of clinical education using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three sections including demographic characteristics, and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical education which was prepared based on five areas of the aims and educational programs, contact to students, educational environment, supervision and evaluation. Data analysis was done using t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficients and the value of p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The most important strengths points of clinical education included: considering the prerequisite of clinical education (79.7%), clarifying the students tasks (72.5%), on-time presence of trainers (88.7%) and trainees (84.2%), providing opportunities of patient care for students (68.5%), good relationship between educational supervisor and the students (56.5%), students' library use in hospital (62.5%) and taking practical exams at the end of each clinical education (58.5%). failing to ask students' views in planning the training program (84.9%), lack of congruence between the educational aims and personnel expectations (74.6%), stressful conditions for students (76.8%), lack of student support by personnel (85.5%), failing to use teaching aids (91.2%) and lack of supervising in clinical education (69%), were among the most important weaknesses of clinical education. Conclusion: with respect to educational aims and programs and educators, majority of students stated the strengths points more than the weaknesses, while in cases of communication with students, clinical environment, supervision and evaluation, the conditions were not much desirable and the weak points were more than the strong points.
Knowledge and Perception of Emergency Contraception of Women in Shahrekord-Iran
Masoumeh Delaram
Journal of Family and Reproductive Health , 2008,
Abstract: "nAbstract"nObjective: The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitude about emergency contraception among women using condom, coitus interruptus and rhythm methods. "nMaterials and methods: Between April and September 2006, 400 women referring to the health centers in Shahrekord, were evaluated. They entered the study if they were using condom, coitus interruptus or rhythm methods. A questionnaire including demographic information, contraceptive method in use, and patients' awareness and attitude/practice about emergency contraception was completed for each participant."nResults: Of the 400 responders, 60.5% were using condom, 38.7% were using coitus interruptus and 0.8% were practicing rhythm method. The awareness was inadequate in 22.5% of women, moderate in 55% and adequate in 22% of them. The attitude of users was positive in more than 70% of them and only 20.5% of women had practiced emergency contraception. The relation of age and job with awareness was significant (P<0.001). A significant relation was considered between the level of education and knowledge of women (P<0.01). The women who had adequate knowledge had practiced the emergency contraception better than those with inadequate knowledge (P<0.001). However, only 27.1% of responders who reported knowing about emergency contraception knew the correct time frame in which emergency contraceptives must be used."nConclusion: There is a critical need to train the women about emergency contraception, emphasizing available methods and correct timing.
The Effects of Passive Smoking on Pregnancy Outcome, Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord
M Delaram
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction : Adverse health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among non-smokers have been studied occasionally in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of exposure to ETS on outcome in pregnancy Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study 600 non-smoking women delivering a singleton live baby were studied in delivery room in Hajar hospital in Shahrekord . A pre-designed structured questionnaire was used to record the details of exposure to ETS . Mother and infants outcomes were compared among those who were exposed to ETS vis-à-vis not exposed . We used spss software for analysis of data . Unpaired Student t-test was used for the comparison of continuous variables and Fisher’s Exact test was used for categorical variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after including all variables found to have significant differences on univariate analysis. Results: Of the 600 women studied 236 (39.3%) were exposed to ETS. In these mothers there was a significantly higher incidence of pre-term birth (15.2% versus 7.9% , P = 0.001) and small-for-gestation babies (15.4% versus 6.8% , P= 0.0001) as compared to unexposed mothers. The mean birth weight of the babies born to the mothers exposed to ETS was 139 g less than that of babies in the unexposed group (3094.49 ±402 g versus 3233.99 ±443 g respectively, P= 0.001). The incidence of anemia was higher in exposed than unexposed mothers (P= 0.005) . The multiple logistic regression analyses showed that ETS exposure during pregnancy was significantly associated with a higher risk of small-for-gestation babies . Conclusion: Exposure to ETS during pregnancy is associated with higher risk of having a small-for-gestation baby.
A new proof of a theorem of Ivanov and Schupp
Delaram Kahrobaei
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: The object of this note is to give a very short proof of the following theorem of Ivanov and Schupp. Let H be a finitely generated subgroup of a free group F and the index [F:H] infinite. Then there exists a nontrivial normal subgroup N of F such that N cap H = {1}.
The Amalgamated product of free groups and residual solvability
Delaram Kahrobaei
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: In this paper we study residual solvability of the amalgamated product of two finitely generated free groups, in the case of doubles. We find conditions where this kind of structure is residually solvable, and show that in general this is not the case. However this kind of structure is always meta-residually-solvable.
A simple proof of a theorem of Karrass and Solitar
Delaram Kahrobaei
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: In this note we give a particularly short and simple proof of the following theorem of Karrass and Solitar. Let $H$ be a finitely generated subgroup of a free group $F$ with infinite index $[F:H]$. Then there is a nontrivial normal subgroup $N$ of $F$ such that $N\cap H = \{1\}$.
The Effect of Fennel on the Pre-Menstrual Syndrome
masoumeh delaram,farkhonde jafari
Knowledge & Health Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Most women experience the premenstrual syndrome at their reproductive age. This is a periodic occurrence (event) that happens during the luteal phase of mentyral cycle and includes the combination of physical, psychological and behavioral changes that interfere with familial communication and social activities. In this regard, different methods have been suggested and one of them is traditional use of medicinal herbs. This study was carried out to detect the effect of fennel on the premenstrual syndrome in students of Shahrekord University of medical sciences in 2008. Methods: In this single blind clinical trial, sixty students with premenstrual syndrome were randomly assigned to either the fennel extract or placebo groups. Data collection was done via DRSP questionnaire and the severity of premenstrual syndrome was detected in two cycles before the intervention and it was compared with after the intervention conditions. To analyze the data, we used SPSS and P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There were no significant differences between the mean scores of premenstrual syndrome in the two groups before the treatment (100.38±33.43 in fennel group VS 104.30 ±19.50 in placebo group), but after the treatment, there was a significant difference between two groups [(64.40±29.3 in fennel group VS 79.10±28.11 in placebo group), P=0.01]. Conclusion: Fennel extract is probably effective in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. We suggest fennel extracts for the treatment of PMS.
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