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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 229 matches for " Degu Abate "
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Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among HIV Positive Persons Who Are Naive and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia
Zelalem Teklemariam,Degu Abate,Habtamu Mitiku,Yadeta Dessie
ISRN AIDS , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/324329
Abstract: Background. Intestinal parasitic infection affects the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive individuals who are naive and who are on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 (112 ART-naive group and 259 on ART) HIV positive individuals. Stool specimens were collected and examined by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration technique, and modified ziehl-Neelsen methods. Results. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 33.7%; it was significantly higher among the study participants who were ART-naive group (45.5%) (AOR:?2.60(1.56,4.34)) and diarrheic (53.3%) (AOR:?2.30(1.34,3.96)) and with CD4 count <200 cells/μL (46%) (AOR:?2.07(1.06,4.04)). The most commonly identified parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.5%), Giardia lamblia (8.1%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.0%), and Cryptosporidium species (2.2%). Conclusion. HIV positive individuals with diarrhea and low CD4 count and ART naive groups were more infected with intestinal parasites than their counterparts. Early stool examination and treatment of intestinal parasites for HIV/AIDS patients is essential. 1. Introduction Globally about 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal parasite. Out of whom, 450 million are suffering from its illness [1, 2]. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is high in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of HIV/AIDS cases are from [2, 3]. Parasites are common infections among HIV/AIDS patients [4–7]. Diarrhea causing opportunistic parasites like Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli is common among HIV positive persons with CD4 count less than 200?cells/μL [4, 5]. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) increases the length and quality of life and productivity of patients by improving survival and decreasing the incidence of opportunistic infections in people with HIV through reduction of the viral load and increasing the level of CD4 cells [8]. Nevertheless, in Ethiopia, few studies have tried to investigate the extent of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to ART experiences and CD4 count [4, 5]. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive persons who were naive and who were on ART in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. 2. Material and Methods 2.1. Study Setting The study was conducted in Hiwot Fana Specialized
Existence and Uniqueness of Global Smooth Solutions for Vlasov Maxwell Equations  [PDF]
Lukas Degu Petros
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2018.81005
Abstract: Global existence of classical solutions to the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system, given sufficiently regular initial data, is a long-standing open problem. The aim of this project is to present in details the results of a paper published in 1986 by Robert Glassey and Walter Strauss. In that paper, a sufficient condition for the global existence of a smooth solution to the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system is derived. In the following, the resulting theorem is proved by taking initial data \"\", \"\". A small data global existence result is presented as well.
Awareness of antenatal care clients on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection and its prevention in Arba Minch
Mesfin Haddis, Degu Jerene
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: This study was done on pregnant mothers attending the antenatal care in Arba Minch Hospital and Arba Minch Health Centre from June15-Aug 30, 2003. Four hundred and eighty four mothers were interviewed at the antenatal clinics. The majority of the mothers (97%) were married. The risk of transmission of HIV, perinatally and through breastfeeding is well known to most mothers. However, the use of ARV prophylaxis was not known to 386(80%) of the mothers. During interview 444(92.3%) of the mothers did not know their HIV serostatus and, 360(74.4%) of all the mothers interviewed volunteered for HIV test. The results of this study indicate the need to integrate voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) in antenatal programmes and the need of educating mothers on the role of ARV prophylaxis in PMTCT. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20(1) 2006: 55-57
Health Service Utilization in Amhara Region of Ethiopia
Mesganaw Fantahun, Getu Degu
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Information on health service utilization is crucial for planning, organizing and evaluation of health services. Objective: Assess perceived morbidity and examine the factors associated with utilization of health services by a sample of the population of the Amhara Region. Methods: Questionnaire was administered in 7 urban and 14 rural kebeles in four administrative zones. A total of 17780 people were included in the study. Results: Of the 200 reported deaths 118 (59%) visited health institutions for the killer disease. Over the two weeks period preceding the survey, 995 (5.6%) people claimed that they were sick and 38.7% of them visited health institutions. The most important reasons for not visiting health institutions were believed that the disease did not need treatment in health institutions (31.9%), bought drugs from drug vendors (27.2) and visited traditional healers (20.2%). In multivariate analysis urban residence (OR= 2.8, 95%CI 1.8, 4.5) and educational status of head of household (OR =3.4 95%CI 2.1,5.5) were significantly related to utilization of modern health institutions. Teenagers and persons above the age of 60 were less likely to visit modern health services. Conclusion: There is a wide gap between perceived morbidity, mortality, and modern health service utilization. In addition to the problems of accessibility and illiteracy of household heads, assumptions that modern health institutions are not helpful for certain disease conditions appear to be the main reason for low utilization of health services. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2003;17(2):141-147]
Prevalence of refractive errors in pre-school and school children of Debark and Kola Diba towns, North-western Ethiopia
Tibebu Kassa, Getu Degu Alene
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: The problem of visual impairment among school children is so prevalent that it greatly reduces children's ability to study and attend classes and finally leads to the formation of grave social consequences. As it is seen from hospital reports, quite a considerable number of school children are suffering from some form of refractive errors, which could be easily corrected by the application of appropriate glasses. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of visual impairment due to refractive errors in pre-school and school children aged 5 to 15 years in two towns of northwestern Ethiopia and, to investigate the influence of some factors on the problem of low vision due to refractive errors. Design: The study was a cross-sectional survey. Methods: One thousand one hundred thirty four pre-school and school children participated in the study. Level of visual acuity - visual acuity of <6/12 in either eye or both eyes was taken as a cut off level for low visual impairment and the three possible refractive states of the eye were studied. Other cut off levels were also considered for the sake of making comparisons with the findings of other similar studies. Results: The prevalence rate of low visual impairment due to refractive errors was 7.6% and myopia was observed to be the most dominant state of refractive error (i.e., 98%), indicating a major visual problem in school children. Among the various influencing factors considered, age of child was found to be significantly associated with the presence of refractive errors (P<.003), while sex did not have such associations (P>.6). Conclusions: Development of vision testing programs in schools and provision of lenses at a reduced cost for those with refractive errors and who cannot afford to buy the glasses are recommended. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 17(2):117-124]
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices involved in Harmful Health Behavior in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia
Getu Degu Alene, Melkie Edris
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: Background: Traditional harmful health practices such as uvulectomy, tonsillectomy, female circumcision, etc. are widely practiced in Ethiopia. These malpractices are associated with risks like massive bleeding, infection, transmission of many diseases including HIV/AIDS. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the population of Dembia District towards traditional harmful health practices. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dembia district, northwest Ethiopia, in May 2001. Data were collected from 1181 households using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results: Uvulectomy, milk teeth extraction, giving butter to a newborn baby as the first feed and cupping (venousection) were the most dominant malpractices reported by our respondents. Educational status and religion were found to be significantly associated with the attitude of respondents towards practicing the prevailing traditional malpractices of the study area ( P < .001 for each factor). Conclusion: An integrated health activity which includes the issue of traditional harmful health practice and its associated risks should be given due attention at grass roots level. The practice of the most serious traditional harmful health practices like female circumcision should be condemned. [Ethiop.J.Health. Dev. 2002;16(2):199-207]
Disease Progression Among Untreated HIV-Infected Patients in South Ethiopia: Implications for Patient Care
Jerene Degu,Lindtj?rn Bernt
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-7-3-66
Abstract: Context The natural course of HIV disease progression among resource-poor patient populations has not been clearly defined. Objective To describe predictors of HIV disease progression as seen at an outpatient clinic in a resource-limited setting in rural Ethiopia. Design This prospective cohort study included all adult HIV patients who visited an outpatient clinic at Arba Minch hospital in South Ethiopia between January 30, 2003 and April 1, 2004. Clinical and hematologic measurements were done at baseline and every 12 weeks thereafter until the patient was transferred, put on antiretroviral therapy, was lost to follow-up, or died. Community agents reported patient status every month. Setting A district hospital with basic facilities for HIV testing and patient monitoring. Main Outcome Measures Death, diagnosis of tuberculosis, and change in disease stage. Results We followed 207 patients for a median duration of 19 weeks (range, 0–60 weeks). A total of 132 (64%) of them were in WHO stage III. The overall mortality rate was 46 per 100 person-years of observation (PYO). Mortality increased with advancing disease stage. Diarrhea, oral thrush, and low total lymphocyte count were significant markers of mortality. The incidence of tuberculosis was 9.9 per 100 PYO. Baseline history of easy fatigability and fever were strongly associated with subsequent development of tuberculosis. Conclusion The mortality rate and the incidence of tuberculosis in our cohort are among the highest ever reported in sub-Saharan Africa. We identified oral thrush, diarrhea, and total lymphocyte count as predictors of mortality, and easy fatigability and fever as predictors of tuberculosis. The findings have practical implications for patient care in resource-limited settings.
Mapping QTLs Related to Plant Height and Root Development of Eragrostis tef under Drought
Hewan Demissie Degu,Tatsuhito Fujimura
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v2n2p62
Abstract: The effects of water-stress on root and shoot growth of tef (Eragrostis tef) was evaluated with a population of 94 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between tef (cv. Kaye Murri) and E. pilosa. The young seedlings were cultured under well-watered (soil water potential; 0.2 MPa) and water-stressed (-1.6 MPa) conditions, and plant height and primary root length were measured after 15 days of culture. Kaye Murri consistently showed larger plant height and longer primary roots than E. pilosa under drought. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were also mapped in relation to water-stress using traits of RILs. Five and seven QTLs for plant height and nine and eight QTLs for primary root length under both of well-watered and water-stressed conditions were identified, respectively. Seven and six QTLs for indexes of response to plant height and primary root length were also found, respectively. Phenotypic variations for a single QTLs was in the range of 2% to 20%. Beside of Kaye Murri, E. pilosa provided promotive QTLs for development of shoots and roots under drought, indicating this species is also an important genetic resource for the breeding of tef.
The Law and Practice of Administrative Courts in Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa City Administrative Tribunal
Abate Ayana
International Journal of Advanced Legal Studies and Governance , 2011,
Abstract: Addis Ababa city administration established an administrative tribunal based on proclamation No. 6/2008. Thus, the city administrative tribunal would revise administrative measures taken by the concerned city offices. In other words, it hears and decides on appeals which are brought to it by the civil servants. The study which adopted the survey research design mainly through personal interview with court administrators revealed that the city administrative tribunal has performed its function in proper manner and base on the laws. Besides, it is observed that in rendering decision the tribunal carefully followed the laid down procedures. Speedy trial was also one quality of the administrative tribunal. It was therefore concluded that the administrative tribunal operated in a legal and procedural sound manner. Nevertheless, for enhanced productivity, professional trainings for the staff of Addis Ababa City Administrative Tribunal in particular and Administrative Courts in Ethiopia in general should be taken seriously.
Frammenti manoscritti del Sefer Mi wot Gadol conservati alla Biblioteca Angelica di Roma
Abate, Emma
Sefarad : Revista de Estudios Hebraicos y Sefardíes , 2009,
Abstract: Description of two 14th c. manuscript fragments of an Ashkenazic copy of the Sefer Mi wot Gadol by R. Mosheh de Coucy preserved in the Biblioteca Angelica (Rome). A critical edition of the text, collating the variants observed in the editions by Bomberg and Pinhas, is provided Descripción de dos fragmentos del Sefer Mi wot Gadol de R. Mo é de Coucy procedentes de una copia manuscrita en escritura hebrea asquenasí del siglo xiv, conservados en las cubiertas de un libro de la Biblioteca Angelica (Roma). Se ofrece una edición del texto colacionado con las variantes observadas respecto a las ediciones de Bomberg y Pin as
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