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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 500 matches for " Deepti Rawat "
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Extended-spectrum -lactamases in gram negative bacteria
Rawat Deepti,Nair Deepthi
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases , 2010,
Abstract: Extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs) are a group of plasmid-mediated, diverse, complex and rapidly evolving enzymes that are posing a major therapeutic challenge today in the treatment of hospitalized and community-based patients. Infections due to ESBL producers range from uncomplicated urinary tract infections to life-threatening sepsis. Derived from the older TEM is derived from Temoniera, a patient from whom the strain was first isolated in Greece. -lactamases, these enzymes share the ability to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam and yet are inhibited by clavulanic acid. In addition, ESBL-producing organisms exhibit co-resistance to many other classes of antibiotics, resulting in limitation of therapeutic option. Because of inoculum effect and substrate specificity, their detection is also a major challenge. At present, however, organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) provide guidelines for the detection of ESBLs in Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. In common to all ESBL-detection methods is the general principle that the activity of extended-spectrum cephalosporins against ESBL-producing organisms will be enhanced by the presence of clavulanic acid. Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant isolates have recently been reported. ESBLs represent an impressive example of the ability of gram-negative bacteria to develop new antibiotic-resistance mechanisms in the face of the introduction of new antimicrobial agents. Thus there is need for efficient infection-control practices for containment of outbreaks; and intervention strategies, e.g., antibiotic rotation to reduce further selection and spread of these increasingly resistant pathogens.
Rapid Tests versus ELISA for Screening of HIV Infection: Our Experience from a Voluntary Counselling and Testing Facility of a Tertiary Care Centre in North India
Bhanu Mehra,Sonali Bhattar,Preena Bhalla,Deepti Rawat
ISRN AIDS , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/296840
Abstract: Early and accurate diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is essential for timely identification of patients needing antiretroviral therapy and for instituting HIV prevention strategies. The primary methodology for HIV testing has shifted from enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in recent years, especially in resource limited settings. However, the diagnostic performance of RDTs is a matter of concern. In the present study the performance of an RDT being used as the initial test in serial testing based algorithm for HIV diagnosis was compared with ELISA. Seven hundred and eighty-seven sera, tested at the voluntary counselling and testing facility employing a serial testing algorithm (based on SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 as the first test), were subsequently tested with Microlisa-HIV for anti-HIV antibodies. The first test missed 9 HIV reactive samples and also registered 5 false positives. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the first test were 77.5%, 99.3%, and 98.8% and 86.1%, respectively, taking ELISA as the standard test. Our study highlights that RDTs fare poorly compared to ELISA as screening assays and that reactive results by RDTs need to be confirmed by western blot for a positive serodiagnosis of HIV infection. 1. Introduction Approximately 35.3 million people across the world are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [1]. Early and accurate knowledge of HIV serostatus of an individual is the cornerstone of HIV prevention and therapeutic intervention. In addition to allowing timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy of the HIV infection, early diagnosis also provides an opportunity to limit the spread of HIV from the infected individuals to the naive population. Detection of anti-HIV antibodies as a marker of HIV exposure is the most widely used approach for serodiagnosis of this infection. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been a preferred screening procedure in this regard [2]. However the labour intensive and time consuming format of the assay as well as the requirement of instrumentation and technical expertise has resulted in a shift from an ELISA based approach to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), particularly in resource constrained settings. While some studies have reported the performance of RDTs and ELISA to be comparable [3], results from others have raised concerns regarding sensitivity and specificity of the rapid assays [4–6]. With regard to HIV testing, two testing algorithms are commonly described: parallel and
Standardization of first and second-line antitubercular susceptibility testing using BacT Alert 3D system: a report from a tertiary care centre in India
Nair, Deepthi;Capoor, Malini R.;Rawat, Deepti;Srivastava, Lakshmi;Aggarwal, Pushpa;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702009000600007
Abstract: resurgence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis has lead to demand for rapid susceptibility testing. conventional methods take > 3 weeks and are tedious. automated methods have superseded them for first line drug susceptibility testing. an attempt was made to standardize first and second line susceptibility testing using the bact alert 3d system (biomerieux). and compare results with lowenstein jensen's (lj) method. 121 isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis, 67 pulmonary and 54 extra pulmonary were subjected to sensitivity to first and second line drugs. multidrug resistance was detected equally by both methods at 15.7%. 100% agreement was observed between the two methods for aminoglycosides, rifampicin, ethionamide and ciprofloxacin. 91.5% agreement was observed for isoniazid, 85% for pyrazinamide and 72.4% for ethambutol. the time taken by lj method was 18-32 days and bact alert 3d system took 4-12 days. in the lesser developed nations where tuberculosis is rampant a rapid effective method for confirming multidrug resistant tuberculosis is definitely desirable and the bact alert 3d system was found an effective method when compared to the 'gold standard' lj proportion.
Van Panchayats as an Effective Tool in Conserving Biodiversity at Local Level  [PDF]
Vardan Singh Rawat, Yashwant Singh Rawat
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.13033
Abstract: Forest vegetation of a community managed forest was studied along four aspects. Quercus leucotrichophora and Pinus roxburghii was the dominant species on each of the two aspects. Across the aspects the total tree density ranged between 193 to 324.3 ind/ha, sapling density between 119 to 258.6 ind/ha and seedling density from 249.98 to 845 ind/ha. The shrub density varied from 199.99 to 406.32 ind/ha and herb density from 9466.66 to 52483.33 ind/ha. The total basal area varied from 0.06 to 7.15 m2/ha at eastern and north facing aspect for Quercus leucotrichophora and Pinus roxburghii respectively showing that the forest is in young stage. Species diversity value for tree layer varied from 0.21 to 1.23 while concentration of dominance value ranged from 0.56 to 0.94. It was noticed that with an increase in species diversity concentration of dominance value decreases indicating inverse relationship between diversity and dominance.
Assessment of Methane Flux from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Areas of Delhi, India  [PDF]
Manju Rawat, AL Ramanathan
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.24045
Abstract: Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are the major Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s), which emit from landfill areas and contribute significantly to global warming. Moreover, that the global warming potential of methane is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide and it has highest generation (60%) than other gases. Therefore, there is immense concern for its abatement or utilization from landfill areas. Compared to the west, the composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has higher (40% - 60%) organic waste. This would have potential to emit higher GHG’s from per ton of MSW compared to developed world. Beside that landfills areas in India are not planned or en- gineered generally low lying open areas, where MSW is indiscriminate disposed. This leads to uncontrolled emission of trace gases, foul smell, bird menace, ground and surface water pollution etc. Due to scarcity of land in big cities, mu- nicipal authorities are using same landfill for nearly 10 - 20 years. Hence, the possibility of anaerobic emission of GHG’s further increases. In the present paper we had quantified the methane emission from three MSW landfill areas of Delhi i.e., Gazipur, Bhalswa and Okhla. The results showed that the range of methane emission various in winter from 12.94 to 58.41 and in Summer from 82.69 - 293 mg/m2/h in these landfill areas. The paper has also reviewed the literature on methane emission from India and the status of landfill areas in India.
The Next Page Access Prediction Using Makov Model
Deepti Razdan
International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Predicting the next page to be accessed by the Webusers has attracted a large amount of research. In this paper, anew web usage mining approach is proposed to predict next pageaccess. It is proposed to identify similar access patterns from weblog using K-mean clustering and then Markov model is used forprediction for next page accesses. The tightness of clusters isimproved by setting similarity threshold while forming clusters.In traditional recommendation models, clustering by nonsequentialdata decreases recommendation accuracy. In thispaper involve incorporating clustering with low order markovmodel which can improve the prediction accuracy. The main areaof research in this paper is pre processing and identification ofuseful patterns from web data using mining techniques with thehelp of open source software.
Analysing the Effect of Parameters in Multipass Submerged arc Welding Process
Deepti Jaiswal
International Journal on Theoretical and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a high quality, high deposition rate welding process commonly used to join plates of higher thickness in load bearing components. This process provide a purer and cleaner high volume weldment that has a relatively a higher material deposition rate compared to the traditional welding welding methods. The effect of controllable process variables on the heat input and the microhardness of weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) for bead on joint welding were calculated and analysed using design of experiment software and fractional factorial technique developed for the multipass SAW of boiler and pressure vessel plates. The main purpose of present work is to investigate and correlated the relationship between various parameters and microhardness and microhardness of single “V” butt joint and predicting weld bead qualities before applying to the actual joining of metal by welding. It is found that the microhardness of weld metal and heat affected zone decreased when the number of passes increases that is total heat input increased.
Interactive Communicative Teaching and the Young Indian Learner
Gupta Deepti
Profile Issues in Teachers` Professional Development , 2004,
Abstract: In classrooms where English is not the mother tongue and where age-old teaching methodology rules the roost, it is not easy to make changes, especially radical ones. This case study shows how these reforms can be self-defeating if they are imposed without an attempt at a gradual, gentle and well thought out implementation. This is a slightly modified and revised version of a paper presented at the “Language in the Mind” International conference organized by the Singapore University, Singapore in September 2000. Key words: Communicative, Task-based, Interactive, Learner-centered, Structural, Lecture-based, Pedagogy En las clases en las que el inglés no es la lengua materna y en las que predomina una metodología anticuada de ense anza, no es fácil efectuar cambios, especialmente cambios radicales. Este caso demuestra cómo estas reformas pueden fracasar si se las impone repentinamente sin una implementación gradual y bien planificada. Esta es una versión modificada y revisada de un documento presentado en la conferencia internacional “Idioma en la mente” organizada por la Universidad de Singapore en Singapore en septiembre de 2000. Palabras claves: Ense anza-Lenguas Extranjeras, Enfoque Comunicativo, Enfoque basado en Tareas, Enfoque Interactivo, Enfoque centrado en el Estudiante, Enfoque Estructural
IMPLEMENTATION OF SELENIUM WITH JUNIT AND TEST-NG
Deepti Gaur
International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Software testing is complex and time consuming.One way to reduce the effort associated with testingis to generate test data automatically. Testing is veryimportant part of software development. Quality isnot an absolute term; it is value to some person. Withthat in mind, testing can never completely establishthe correctness of arbitrary computer software testingfurnishes a criticism or comparison that compares thestate and behavior of the product against aspecification. Software testing process can produceseveral artifacts. So, we proposed a model to improvequality and correctness and also we reduce thesoftware testing time. In this paper we willimplement selenium with different frameworks i.e.junit and testng.
Disparities in Development, Status of Women and Social Opportunities: Indian Experience
Deepti Gupta
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The focus of this article is the comparative analysis of theseventeen major states of India, which have an intrinsic bearing on social, economic and human development. Inter-state comparison in the areas of economic well-being, health, education, human development index, status of women and social opportunities have been done. For comparing these dimensions of development, different variables like Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) per capita, poverty estimate (head count ratio), Infant mortality rate (IMR) and Maternal mortality rate (MMR) Adult literacy rate, the elementary education dropout rate, Human Development Index (HDI), female literacy rate, sex ratio, maternal mortality rate, percentageof anemic women, percentage of women who have ever experiencedspousal violence, percentage of married women who participate inhousehold decisions, percentage of population having electricity, using piped drinking water and have access to toilet facilities. In the end of this article, the linkages between social opportunities, status of women and development has been calculated with the help of correlation and the results show the strong relationship between the three mentioned variables.
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