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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23727 matches for " Deepika Fernando "
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Current Evidence on the Use of Antifilarial Agents in the Management of bancroftian Filariasis
Sumadhya Deepika Fernando,Chaturaka Rodrigo,Senaka Rajapakse
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/175941
Abstract: Many trials have explored the efficacy of individual drugs and drug combinations to treat bancroftian filariasis. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for drug management of bancroftian filariasis. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) remains the prime antifilarial agent with a well-established microfilaricidal and some macrofilaricidal effects. Ivermectin (IVM) is highly microfilaricidal but minimally macrofilaricidal. The role of albendazole (ALB) in treatment regimens is not well established though the drug has a microfilaricidal effect. The combination of DEC+ALB has a better long-term impact than IVM+ALB. Recent trials have shown that doxycycline therapy against Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium of the parasite, is capable of reducing microfilaria rates and adult worm activity. Followup studies on mass drug administration (MDA) are yet to show a complete interruption of transmission, though the infection rates are reduced to a very low level. 1. Introduction There are nine filarial nematodes causing disease in humans. According to the location of the parasite and the pathogenesis, the disease can be classified as lymphatic, subcutaneous, and serous cavity filariasis. Two filarial worms, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi cause lymphatic filariasis. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers lymphatic filariasis to be a global health problem affecting approximately 120 million people in over 80 countries [1]. One-third of affected individuals are from South Asia and another one third is from Africa [1]. One sixth of the world population is at risk of infection [1]. The adult W. bancrofti worms live within the human lymphatic system. They have a long life span of 4–6 years. Females are viviparous and release thousands of microfilaria into the blood stream of the host after mating. These are taken up by vector mosquitoes during feeding, and the parasite undergoes several moults within the intermediate host to become the L3 larva which is the infective stage. During a feed, this larva enters the human blood stream and migrates to the lymphatics where it moults to become an adult worm [2]. There is a range of clinical manifestations in bancroftian filariasis with asymptomatic microfilaremics being at one end of the spectrum. Symptomatic patients may have acute (lymphangitis, lymphadenitis), chronic (elephantiasis, lymphoedema, hydrocoele, chyluria), or atypical (funiculitis, mastitis) manifestations [3]. Some may suffer from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) due to the immunological hyperresponsiveness to the parasite [4].
Primaquine in vivax malaria: an update and review on management issues
Deepika Fernando, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Senaka Rajapakse
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-351
Abstract: Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, has been approved for treatment of malaria since 1952 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), United States [1]. Six decades after its official licensing, primaquine still holds a unique and unchallenged place in anti-malarial regimens of cure and prophylaxis [2]. It is the only drug proven to be effective, and licensed to eliminate, the hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. Though primaquine is effective, unique and irreplaceable, it is also associated with serious hazards and side effects, such as its ability to precipitate haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals [3]. This prohibits its use in key groups, such as pregnant women [4]. The current uses of primaquine in vivax malaria are threefold: for radical cure of patients with confirmed parasitaemia; for causal prophylaxis; and for terminal prophylaxis [1]. In addition, it is used as a gametocytocidal agent in falciparum malaria.This update and review deals with the current role of primaquine in treatment of vivax malaria. It will explore this topic on several fronts namely: a) evidence of efficacy of primaquine for its current indications; b) potential hazards of its widespread use c) critical analysis of reported resistance against primaquine containing regimens d) evidence for combining primaquine with artemisinins in areas of chloroquine resistance and e) the potential for replacement of primaquine with newer drugs.A MEDLINE search was performed for all articles with the key word 'primaquine' and 'Vivax' in any field. The search was restricted to articles published in all languages within the last two decades (1991-2011). There were 480 abstracts in the original search with these restrictions. The software Endnote X3 (Thomson Reuters, Carlsbad, CA 92011, USA) was used to filter articles. Bibliographies of cited literature were also searched. All abstracts were read independently by the three authors, and key articles were
Review on dermatomycosis: pathogenesis and treatment  [PDF]
Deepika T. Lakshmipathy, Krishnan Kannabiran
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.27090
Abstract: Dermatophytes, a group of keratinophilic fungi thriving on the keratin substrate are the etio-logical agents responsible for causing cutaneous infections. Dermatophytosis is currently treated with the commercially available topical and oral antifungal agents in spite of the existing side effects. Treatment of these cutaneous infections with secondary metabolites produced by marine microorganisms is considered as a novel approach. For many years these organisms have been explored with the view of developing antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti- cancer and antiparasitic drugs. Exploring the unexplored aspect of actinobacteria for developing antidermatophytic drugs is a novel attempt which needs further investigation.
High Accuracy Arithmetic Average Discretization for Non-Linear Two Point Boundary Value Problems with a Source Function in Integral Form  [PDF]
Ranjan K. Mohanty, Deepika Dhall
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.210173
Abstract: In this article, we report the derivation of high accuracy finite difference method based on arithmetic average discretization for the solution of Un=F(x,u,u´)+∫K(x,s)ds , 0 <x < 1, 0 < s < 1 subject to natural boundary conditions on a non-uniform mesh. The proposed variable mesh approximation is directly applicable to the integro-differential equation with singular coefficients. We need not require any special discretization to obtain the solution near the singular point. The convergence analysis of a difference scheme for the diffusion convection equation is briefly discussed. The presented variable mesh strategy is applicable when the internal grid points of the solution space are both even and odd in number as compared to the method discussed by authors in their previous work in which the internal grid points are strictly odd in number. The advantage of using this new variable mesh strategy is highlighted computationally.
Evolution of Slum Redevelopment Policy  [PDF]
Deepika Andavarapu, David J. Edelman
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14021
Abstract: Slums have been part of the urban landscape since the Victorian Era, and, over the years, policies such as public housing, slum upgrading, tenure security, city wide slum removal and other measures were adopted to improve the quality of life of the slum dwellers. In this paper, the evolution of those policies is explored and evaluated, and key policy strategies that need to be adopted at the donor and recipient levels in order to achieve measurable change in slum improvement across the world are suggested.
Bee-Inspired Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad HOC Network (MANET)
Deepika Chaudhary
Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jetwi.2.2.86-88
Abstract: Mobile AdHoc networks( MANETs) are receiving a significant amount of attention from researchers. This paper provides a high light on a new and very energy efficient algorithm for routing in Manets BeeAdHoc. This algorithm is a reactive source routing algorithm and consumes less energy as compared to other existing state of art routing algorithms because a fewer control packets for routing are sent as compared to other networks.
Reply To Letter Of Reader
Pandhi Deepika
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2002,
Abstract:
Biofunctionality of Probiotic Soy Yoghurt  [PDF]
Shilpa Vij, Subrota Hati, Deepika Yadav
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.25073
Abstract: Soybean provides health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease, reducing menopausal symptoms, weight loss, arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis and brain function. It contains phytochemicals such as isoflavones, saponins, phytosterols that promote health benefits. Soy food products are perceived as healthy food and are considered an important part of the diet. More than 50% consumers in the USA agreed that soy foods are healthy foods. Soymilk is considered as a suitable economical substitute for cow’s milk and an ideal nutritional supplement for lactose-intolerant population and also considered cholesterol free product for cardiovascular disorders. Fermented soy milk is a good source of bioactive peptides such as anti-ACE, antioxidative, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory. Many fermented soy milk based products such as soy cheese, soymilk-kefir, soy yoghurt etc. are produced.
Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Creosote Treated Wood Waste by A Mixed Microbial Culture Augmented with Cellulolytic- Thermophilic Actinomaycets Thermobifida fusca  [PDF]
Abdel E Ghaly, Bopeng Zhang, Deepika Dave
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.31011
Abstract: Creosote is used for preservation of railway ties and timbers, electric utility poles, marine and foundation piling, fences and garden furniture. Creosote-treated wood waste may cause potential contamination of soil and water if they are not disposed properly. Creosote contains over 300 organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds and heterocyclic organic compounds, many of which are toxic to human and can cause damage to kidney, liver, eyes and skin. The feasibility of using a composting technique inoculated with the cellulose degrading actinomycetesThermobifidafusca as a mesophilic/thermophilic bioremediation option to degrade phenolic compounds in creosote treated wood waste was evaluated. The temperature profile of bioremediation process clearly identified mesophilic and thermophilic phases in both experiments. Different degradation rates were observed in the mesophilic and thermophilic phases. Fluctuations of pH was observed in both experiment as the result of the breakdown of organic nitrogen to ammonium in the first week and the formation of organic acids and the loss of ammonium with the exhaust gases in the latter stage. The moisture content decreased in both trials because of the net loss of water with the exhaust gas. Both experiments achieved similar reductions in total carbon and TKN, volatile solids and phenolic compounds, cellulose and lignin indicating similar levels of microbial activities during the composting process. The stability and maturity of the final products were also similar. The inoculation of the cellulolytic-thermophilicactinomycetesThermobifidafusca did not manifest observable differences in degrading cellulose, lignin and phenolic compounds compared with the control.
Effect of Chromium on Magnetic Characteristics of Powder Processed Fe-0.35wt%P Alloy  [PDF]
Deepika Sharma, Kamlesh Chandra, Prabhu Shankar Misra
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.107047
Abstract: The present investigation deals with hot powder preform forging technique for the development of high density iron-phosphorus based alloys. These alloys are known for hot-shortness and are therefore not considered suitable for high temperature working. To remove this problem proper soaking at high temperature to eliminate iron- phosphide eutectic and bring entire phosphorus into solution in iron was aimed. Attempting hot forging thereafter completely eliminates hot as well as cold shortness and thereby helps to form these alloys into very thin sheets. It has also been possible to eliminate the use of costly hydrogen atmosphere during sintering by use of addition of carbon as a reducing agent to form CO gas within the compact by reacting with oxygen of iron powder particles. The glassy ceramic coating applied over the compact serves as a protective coating to avoid atmospheric oxygen attack over the compact held at high temperature. Combined application of carbon and glassy ceramic coating has lead to economy in P/M processing for soft magnetic applications. Fe- 0.07C- 0.3O- 0.35wt% P- 0.35wt% Cr alloy so formed yielded coercivity as low as 0.42 Oe, resistivity as high as 21.8 μ cm and total loss as low as 0.170 W/Kg. Such a combination of properties may suit their application in magnetic relays and transformer cores.
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