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In vitro genotoxicity of piperacillin impurity-A
M Vijayan, M Deecaraman, KT Pudupalayam
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The manufacturing and storage of the piperacillin produce different impurities of various concentrations, which may influence the efficacy and safety of the drug. Since no report of genotoxicity data is available on the impurities of piperacillin, further studies were designed and conducted to provide information for establishing the safety profile and qualification of the piperacillin impurity-A. Salmonella typhimurium strains were exposed to Piperacillin impurity-A for Ames tests. Neither increase in number of revertants indicative of mutagenic activity nor inhibition of bacterial growth, indicative of cytotoxicity were observed up to 5 mg/plate both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Similarly, chromosomal aberration assay did not reveal any significant alterations up to 5 mg/culture as compared to the negative control both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). The results of these studies indicate that Piperacillin impurity-A is non-mutagenic in Ames test and non-clastogenic in chromosomal aberration study.
Nanosuspension technology and its applications in drug delivery
Arunkumar N,Deecaraman M,Rani C
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2009,
Abstract: Solubility is an essential factor for drug effectiveness, independent of the route of administration. Poorly soluble drugs are often a challenging task for formulators in the industry. Conventional approaches for enhancement of solubility have limited applicability, especially when the drugs are poorly soluble simultaneously in aqueous and in non-aqueous media. Nanosuspension technology can be used to improve the stability as well as the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions are biphasic systems consisting of pure drug particles dispersed in an aqueous vehicle, stabilized by surfactants. These are simple to prepare and are more advantageous than other approaches. Techniques such as wet milling, high-pressure homogenization, emulsification-solvent evaporation and super critical fluid have been used in the preparation of nanosuspensions. It has the advantage of delivery by various routes, including oral, parenteral, pulmonary and ocular routes. The present article reviews the current methods used to prepare nanosuspensions and their application in drug delivery.
Cypermethrin induced toxicity to phosphatases and dehydrogenases in gills and hemolymph of fresh water crab, spiralothelphusa hydrodroma(herbst)
R S Sreenivasan,P Krishna Moorthy, M Deecaraman
International Journal of Biological and Medical Research , 2011,
Abstract: The fresh water field crab, Spiralothelphusa hydrodroma is an important food source in parts of South India. The impact of cypermethrin on the variations in the enzyme activity of gills and hemolymph of the experimental female crab S.hydrodroma was carried out. The toxicity of the cypermethrin on the crab was estimated using LC . Quantitative enzymatic studies of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the gills and hemolymph was undertaken
Biochemical stress of chromium in tannery effluents on the fresh water fish, tilapia mossambica(pisces)
R S Sreenivasan,P Krishna Moorthy , M Deecaraman
International Journal of Biological and Medical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Tannery effluent was brought from the Puliyankannu Village, SIPCOT Industrial Estate of Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India. The fresh water teleost, Tilapia mossambica was chosen as experimental animal. Chromium is the major constituent of tannery effluent, which is the heavy metal and highly toxic to aquatic fauna. The physico-chemical characteristic and oxygen consumption of tannery effluent were estimated. Histological changes in the liver and muscle of the experimental fish were observed. In the present investigation, the changes of histological structure of liver and muscle of Tilapia mossambica under chromium stress and toxic stress of tannery effluents on agriculture aquatic fauna were studied and the results are reported in this paper.
Formulation development and in vitro evaluation of nanosuspensions loaded with Atorvastatin calcium
Arunkumar N,Deecaraman M,Rani C,Mohanraj K
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize nanosuspensions of a poorly soluble drug (Atorvastatin calcium) in order to enhance its solubility and dissolution characteristics. Nanosuspensions were prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. They were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), solubility, and in vitro drug release studies. The absence of atorvastatin peaks in PXRD profiles of nanosuspensions suggests the transformation of crystalline drug into an amorphous form. TGA examination suggested that the drug was converted into anhydrous form from the original trihydrate form. DSC curves also compliment the result obtained by TGA and PXRD. The effect of particle size was found to be significant on the saturation solubility of the drug. The in vitro drug release studies showed a significant increase in the dissolution rate of nanosuspensions as compared with pure drug. This study has shown that initial crystalline state is reduced following particle size reduction and that the dissolution characteristics of atorvastatin nanosuspensions were significantly increased in regards to the pure drug. The method being simple and easily scaled up, this approach should have a general applicability to many poorly water-soluble drug entities.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed
A Kumar, R Ilavarasan, T Jayachandran, M Deecaraman, RM Kumar, P Aravindan, N Padmanabhan, MRV Krishan
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) is a popular traditional medicinal plant in India. This study was intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of S. cumini seed in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg administrated orally. Both the extracts exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity, which supports the traditional medicinal utilization of the plant. This study established anti-inflammatory activity of the seed of S. cumini.
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032
Abstract:

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
Using of the generalized special relativity (GSR) in estimating the neutrino masses to explain the conversion of electron neutrinos  [PDF]
M. H. M. Hilo
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34044
Abstract: In this work the Generalized Special Relativity (GSR) is utilized to estimate masses of some elementary particles such as, neutrinos. These results are found to be in conformity with experimental and theoretical data. The results obtained may explain some physical phenomena, such as, conversion of neutrinos from type to type when solar neutrino reaches the Earth.
Postischemic Lower Extremity Wounds Treated with and without Negative Pressure Dressing  [PDF]
Naz?mmü?
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.37075
Abstract: Background: Vacuum-assisted dressing is a noninvasive closure system of the wound, which makes localized and controlled negative pressure. Its mechanical tension reduces edema, stimulates granulation tissue formation and angiogenesis, and prepares the wound bed for closure. In this study, a patient has been presented, who suffered from serious lower extremity wounds due to arterial emboli, one of her wounds has been treated with vacuum-assisted dressing and the other with conventional dressing to evaluate the efficacy of vacuum-assisted dressing in acute ischemic wounds. Methods: A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency clinic, due to complaint of severe pain in her right lower extremity which suggested an acute arterial occlusion. She immediately underwent an embolectomy operation; however, a few days later, severe ischemia on the leg and foot became appearant. All of the necrosis was sharply debrided under sterile conditions in the operating room, and then lower leg wound was covered with vacuum-assisted dressing, also calcaneal wound was dressed with silver sulphadiazine. Results: Eighteen days after the first dressing with negative pressure, distal leg wound became ready for closure, whereas, enough granulation tissue over the calcaneal area developed merely thirty-four days later. Calcaneal wound closed spontaneously within fifty-three days. Conclusions: When dealing with this experience, using the negative pressure dressing in patient with severe lower limb wounds following arterial emboli, accelerates wound healing by means of developing the granulation tissue, and rapidly prepares the wound for closure, so it may reduce the risk of amputation.
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