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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401740 matches for " Debra M. Montrose "
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Sleep spindle deficits in antipsychotic-na?ve early course schizophrenia and in non-psychotic first-degree relatives
Dara S. Manoach,Erin J. Wamsley,Debra M. Montrose,David Kupfer,Robert Stickgold,Matcheri S. Keshavan
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00762
Abstract: Introduction: Chronic medicated patients with schizophrenia have marked reductions in sleep spindle activity and a correlated deficit in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Using archival data, we investigated whether antipsychotic-na?ve early course patients with schizophrenia and young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia also show reduced sleep spindle activity and whether spindle activity correlates with cognitive function and symptoms. Method: Sleep spindles during Stage 2 sleep were compared in antipsychotic-na?ve adults newly diagnosed with psychosis, young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and two samples of healthy controls matched to the patients and relatives. The relations of spindle parameters with cognitive measures and symptom ratings were examined. Results: Early course schizophrenia patients showed significantly reduced spindle activity relative to healthy controls and to early course patients with other psychotic disorders. Relatives of schizophrenia patients also showed reduced spindle activity compared with controls. Reduced spindle activity correlated with measures of executive function in early course patients, positive symptoms in schizophrenia and IQ estimates across groups. Conclusions: Like chronic medicated schizophrenia patients, antipsychotic-na?ve early course schizophrenia patients and young non-psychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia have reduced sleep spindle activity. These findings indicate that the spindle deficit is not an antipsychotic side-effect or a general feature of psychosis. Instead, the spindle deficit may predate the onset of schizophrenia, persist throughout its course and be an endophenotype that contributes to cognitive dysfunction.
Homeostatic Imbalance of Purine Catabolism in First-Episode Neuroleptic-Na?ve Patients with Schizophrenia
Jeffrey K. Yao,George G. Dougherty Jr.,Ravinder D. Reddy,Matcheri S. Keshavan,Debra M. Montrose,Wayne R. Matson,Joseph McEvoy,Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009508
Abstract: Purine catabolism may be an unappreciated, but important component of the homeostatic response of mitochondria to oxidant stress. Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of oxidative stress in schizophrenia pathology.
Associations between Purine Metabolites and Clinical Symptoms in Schizophrenia
Jeffrey K. Yao, Ruth Condray, George G. Dougherty, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Debra M. Montrose, Wayne R. Matson, Joseph McEvoy, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Ravinder D. Reddy
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042165
Abstract: Background The antioxidant defense system, which is known to be dysregulated in schizophrenia, is closely linked to the dynamics of purine pathway. Thus, alterations in the homeostatic balance in the purine pathway may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Methodology/Principal Findings Breakdown products in purine pathway were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a coulometric multi-electrode array system for 25 first-episode neuroleptic-na?ve patients with schizophrenia at baseline and at 4-weeks following initiation of treatment with antipsychotic medication. Associations between these metabolites and clinical and neurological symptoms were examined at both time points. The ratio of uric acid and guanine measured at baseline predicted clinical improvement following four weeks of treatment with antipsychotic medication. Baseline levels of purine metabolites also predicted clinical and neurological symtpoms recorded at baseline; level of guanosine was associated with degree of clinical thought disturbance, and the ratio of xanthosine to guanosine at baseline predicted degree of impairment in the repetition and sequencing of actions. Conclusions/Significance Findings suggest an association between optimal levels of purine byproducts and dynamics in clinical symptoms and adjustment, as well as in the integrity of sensory and motor processing. Taken together, alterations in purine catabolism may have clinical relevance in schizophrenia pathology.
Applying Global Perspectives on Fragility to Improve US Communities  [PDF]
Debra J. Bolton, Francisco M. Hernandez
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.71003
Abstract: Today, the greatest impacts on families stem from ongoing global conflicts and other natural or man-made disasters. Literature and multi-lingual research were examined and analyzed to determine fragility in rural and urban US communities with high immigrant populations, high poverty, and challenged social integration. Data came from international development and localized research. Literature review content was related to fragility, families emigrating to the US coming from those fragile states, and immigrants’ ability to adapt to new environments as evidenced in research analyses. Approaches that non-governmental, humanitarian and peace-building entities are taking to bridge research with application were also examined. A model of adaptive and culturally-relevant practices is offered as a logical way to address the effects of poverty and fragile conditions, and to move affected populations toward resilience.
Generalization of Computer Assisted Prosody Training: Quantitative and Qualitative Findings
Debra M. Hardison
Language Learning and Technology , 2004,
Abstract: Two experiments investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted prosody training, its generalization to novel sentences and segmental accuracy, and the relationship between prosodic and lexical information in long-term memory. Experiment 1, using a pretest-posttest design, provided native English-speaking learners of French with 3 weeks of training focused on prosody using a real-time computerized pitch display. Multiple exemplars produced by native speakers (NSs) of French and stored on hard disk provided training feedback. Learners' recorded pre- and posttest productions were presented to NSs for evaluation in two conditions: filtered (unintelligible segmental information) and unfiltered. Ratings using 7-point scales for the prosody and segmental accuracy of unfiltered samples revealed significant improvement in prosody with generalization to segmental production and novel sentences. Comparison of prosody ratings for filtered and unfiltered samples revealed some segmental influence on the pretest ratings of prosody. In Experiment 2, involving a memory recall task using filtered stimuli of reduced intelligibility, learners identified the exact lexical content of an average of 80% of the training sentences based on prosodic cues consistent with exemplar-based learning models. Questionnaire responses indicated a greater awareness of the various aspects of speech and increased confidence in producing another language.
Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid vs. Reconstruction of the External Auditory Canal in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Aural Atresia: A Comparison Study of Outcomes
Soroush Farnoosh,Debra M. Don
Frontiers in Pediatrics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fped.2014.00005
Abstract: Objectives/hypothesis: Congenital aural atresia is a rare condition affecting 1 in 10,000–20,000 children a year. Surgery is required to restore hearing to facilitate normal development. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in hearing, complications, and quality of life of surgical reconstruction of the external auditory canal reconstruction (EACR) and bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in a pediatric population with congenital aural atresia.
Motility and Chemotaxis Mediate the Preferential Colonization of Gastric Injury Sites by Helicobacter pylori
Eitaro Aihara,Chet Closson,Andrea L. Matthis,Michael A. Schumacher,Amy C. Engevik,Yana Zavros,Karen M. Ottemann,Marshall H. Montrose
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004275
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1) significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB) or chemotaxis (ΔcheY). ΔmotB (106) failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (106) colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites, and thereby biases the injured tissue towards sustained gastric damage.
Antigen Detection in Canine Blastomycosis: Comparison of Different Antibody-Antigen Combinations in Two Competitive ELISAs  [PDF]
Debra Andrae, Katheryn Birch, Trevor Bybee, Thomas Ritcher, Jason Werth, Gene M. Scalarone
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.23016
Abstract: This present study was designed to evaluate four different Blastomyces dermatitidis antibody-antigen combinations (B5896 and T-58 antibodies and B5896 and WI-R antigens) for the detection of antigen in 36 urine specimens from dogs with blastomycosis using a standard indirect ELISA (STD) and a biotin-streptavidin ELISA (B-SA). The antigen detection sensitivity values ranged from 81% (B-SA: T-58 Ab + WI-R Ag) to 100% (STD and B-SA: B5896 Ab + WI-R Ag; B5896 Ab + B5896 Ag) with the antibody-antigen combinations in the two assays. Optimal detection was evidenced when the B5896 Ab was allowed to react with the urine specimens for 30 min at 37?C and then placed in the B-SA ELISA plates containing the B5896 Ag. The greatest absorbance value obtained with this antibody-antigen com-bination was 0.903 (range of 0.596 - 0.903) as compared to the control value of 1.246. The difference between the control absorbance and the test absorbance values was 0.343 which was considerably greater than the control-test values with the other combinations. This study thus showed that the results obtained in antigen detection assays are dependent upon the antibody used to react with the urine specimens as well as the antigen used in the enzyme immunoassay.
Chemical stability of gold dental alloys
Debra J. L. Treacy,Randall M. German
Gold Bulletin , 1984, DOI: 10.1007/BF03214698
Abstract: The biocompatibility and desirable working characteristics of gold-based alloys are widely recognized in dentistry. Although there has been considerable activity in understanding such characteristics as hardenability, there is perhaps more significance to the chemical stability of a dental alloy since degradation of a dental alloy during service can induce a toxic response and promote gingival tissue irritaion.
Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays
Miki Motohashi-Saigo,Debra M. Hardison
Language Learning and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences). Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu). Results revealed a) significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b) significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/); c) no significant effect of condition; and d) no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV) based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.
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