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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462238 matches for " Debra A. Budiani "
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The Social Determinants of Organ Trafficking: A Reflection of Social Inequity
Debra A. Budiani,Kabir Karim
Social Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Organ trafficking has become evident in its global scope and consequences. Poverty, vulnerability, destitution and a system of exploitative transplant practices are social determinants for commercial living organ donation. Guided by the WHO resolution on organ transplants and the Istanbul Declaration, transplant practices can advanced standards of greater social equality rather than exploit social determinants of poverty, vulnerability and destitution by way of exploitative health systems.
A Real-World Observational Study of Patients with Advanced Melanoma Receiving First-Line Ipilimumab in a Community Practice Setting  [PDF]
Debra A. Patt, Debra Rembert, Menaka Bhor, Debajyoti Bhowmik, Sumati A. Rao
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.512110
Abstract: Background: Following approval of ipilimumab, this observational cohort study (CA184-332) was initiated to describe patient and disease characteristics, patterns of care, survival, and adverse events (AEs) in advanced melanoma (AM) patients treated with first-line ipilimumab in realworld US community practice. Methods: Adult patients with treatment-naive AM who received ≥1 dose of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg between April 2011 and September 2012 were retrospectively identified at US Oncology sites. Clinical data were abstracted from patient medical records. Results: Median age of the 157 patient cohorts was 66 years (range 21 - 91). 68.2% were male, and 90.5% had a cutaneous primary site. At ipilimumab initiation, 80.9% of patients had an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1; 54.1% were stage M1c; 34.4% had brain metastases; 24.8% had elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and 13.4% were positive for BRAF mutation. All 4 cycles of ipilimumab were completed by 55.8% of patients. At a median follow-up of 8.5 months (range 2.9 - 15.0), median overall survival was 11.5 months (95% CI: 8.9 - 16.6) and 1-year survival was 46.7% (95% CI: 38.1 - 54.9). During ipilimumab treatment, AEs were experienced by 63.7% of patients. The most frequent AEs were gastrointestinal (41.4%; diarrhea in 19.1%) and skin-related (28.0%; rash in 17.8%); 17.8% of patients had an AE that led to ipilimumab discontinuation. Conclusions: These real-world results are consistent with those from clinical trials and provide evidence supporting the effectiveness and safety of first-line ipilimumab 3 mg/kg monotherapy in patients with AM treated in a community practice setting.
Prevention of breast cancer by recapitulation of pregnancy hormone levels
Debra A Tonetti
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr750
Abstract: Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the protective effect of a full-term pregnancy before age 20 years on the risk for developing breast cancer, as compared with women who have never had a full-term pregnancy. Rodent models can replicate the protective effect of pregnancy against the development of carcinogen-induced mammary cancer. Most intriguing is the ability to prevent mammary cancers in these rodent models by recreating the hormonal milieu of pregnancy by providing estradiol and progesterone to achieve pregnancy levels, either before or after the carcinogenic insult. In this issue of Breast Cancer Research, Rajkumar and coworkers [1] take a step further in recapitulating the protective effect of pregnancy. They demonstrate that both natural and synthetic estrogens in combination with progestins at lower doses and with shorter durations of treatment are capable of providing the protective effect. These studies are compelling because this hormonal regimen may be applicable to the prevention of human breast cancer. However, this approach, despite impressive preclinical studies, may be difficult to translate into a clinical trial.The protective effect afforded by full-term pregnancy in women who are 20 years old or younger, as compared with nulliparous women, is recognized among all ethnic groups, but the mechanism of this effect is not fully understood. Rodent models have been extensively utilized to demonstrate the role of pregnancy [2,3] and hormones simulating pregnancy [4,5] in preventing mammary carcinogenesis. Actually, two separate models have been used to demonstrate the protective effects of parity: a pretreatment model and a post-treatment model [6]. In the pretreatment model the hormonal treatment is given before the carcinogen, whereas in the post-treatment model the carcinogen is given first, followed by the hormone treatment. The latter is the model used by Rajkumar and coworkers [1]. The fact that the timing of hormonal treatment – bef
Sex differences in stress-related receptors: ″micro″ differences with ″macro″ implications for mood and anxiety disorders
Bangasser Debra A
Biology of Sex Differences , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2042-6410-4-2
Abstract: Stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as unipolar depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), occur more frequently in women than in men. Emerging research suggests that sex differences in receptors for the stress hormones, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoids, contribute to this disparity. For example, sex differences in CRF receptor binding in the amygdala of rats may predispose females to greater anxiety following stressful events. Additionally, sex differences in CRF receptor signaling and trafficking in the locus coeruleus arousal center combine to make females more sensitive to low levels of CRF, and less adaptable to high levels. These receptor differences in females could lead to hyperarousal, a dysregulated state associated with symptoms of depression and PTSD. Similar to the sex differences observed in CRF receptors, sex differences in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function also appear to make females more susceptible to dysregulation after a stressful event. Following hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation, GRs are critical to the negative feedback process that inhibits additional glucocorticoid release. Compared to males, female rats have fewer GRs and impaired GR translocation following chronic adolescent stress, effects linked to slower glucocorticoid negative feedback. Thus, under conditions of chronic stress, attenuated negative feedback in females would result in hypercortisolemia, an endocrine state thought to cause depression. Together, these studies suggest that sex differences in stress-related receptors shift females more easily into a dysregulated state of stress reactivity, linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The implications of these receptor sex differences for the development of novel pharmacotherapies are also discussed.
Early-type Stars: Most Favorable Targets for Astrometrically Detectable Planets in the Habitable Zone
Andrew Gould,Debra A. Fischer
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/377147
Abstract: Early-type stars appear to be a difficult place to look for planets astrometrically. First, they are relatively heavy, and for fixed planetary mass the astrometric signal falls inversely as the stellar mass. Second, they are relatively rare (and so tend to be more distant), and for fixed orbital separation the astrometric signal falls inversely as the distance. Nevertheless, because early-type stars are relatively more luminous, their habitable zones are at larger semi-major axis. Since astrometric signal scales directly as orbital size, this gives early-type stars a strong advantage, which more than compensates for the other two factors. Using the Hipparcos catalog, we show that early-type stars constitute the majority of viable targets for astrometric searches for planets in the habitable zone. We contrast this characteristic to transit searches, which are primarily sensitive to habitable planets around late-type stars.
Revealing A Universal Planet-Metallicity Correlation For Planets of Different Sizes Around Solar-Type Stars
Ji Wang,Debra A. Fischer
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The metallicity of exoplanet systems serves as a critical diagnostic of planet formation mechanisms. Previous studies have demonstrated the planet-metallicity correlation for large planets ($R_P\ \geq\ 4\ R_E$); however, a correlation has not been found for smaller planets. With a sample of 406 $Kepler$ Objects of Interest whose stellar properties are determined spectroscopically, we reveal a universal planet-metallicity correlation: not only gas-giant planets ($3.9\ R_E\ < R_P\ \leq\ 22.0\ R_E$) but also gas-dwarf ($1.7\ R_E\ < R_P\ \leq\ 3.9\ R_E$) and terrestrial planets ($R_P\ \leq\ 1.7\ R_E$) occur more frequently in metal-rich stars. The planet occurrence rates of gas-giant planets, gas-dwarf planets, and terrestrial planets are $9.30^{+5.62}_{-3.04}$, $2.03^{+0.29}_{-0.26}$, and $1.72^{+0.19}_{-0.17}$ times higher for metal-rich stars than for metal-poor stars, respectively.
Questioning the Ubiquity of Neofunctionalization
Todd A. Gibson ,Debra S. Goldberg
PLOS Computational Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000252
Abstract: Gene duplication provides much of the raw material from which functional diversity evolves. Two evolutionary mechanisms have been proposed that generate functional diversity: neofunctionalization, the de novo acquisition of function by one duplicate, and subfunctionalization, the partitioning of ancestral functions between gene duplicates. With protein interactions as a surrogate for protein functions, evidence of prodigious neofunctionalization and subfunctionalization has been identified in analyses of empirical protein interactions and evolutionary models of protein interactions. However, we have identified three phenomena that have contributed to neofunctionalization being erroneously identified as a significant factor in protein interaction network evolution. First, self-interacting proteins are underreported in interaction data due to biological artifacts and design limitations in the two most common high-throughput protein interaction assays. Second, evolutionary inferences have been drawn from paralog analysis without consideration for concurrent and subsequent duplication events. Third, the theoretical model of prodigious neofunctionalization is unable to reproduce empirical network clustering and relies on untenable parameter requirements. In light of these findings, we believe that protein interaction evolution is more persuasively characterized by subfunctionalization and self-interactions.
The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees
Debra J. Ackerman,Rachel A. Sansanelli
Early Childhood Research & Practice , 2010,
Abstract: The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF) aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical assistance to support these efforts. With the aim of informing potential ELCF grantees, this article reports the results of a statewide survey of 391 child care center directors focusing on the source of their preschool learning expectations and program standards. The majority of surveyed directors report that the state’s child care licensing standards are used. Additional directors report that the state’s prekindergarten program standards or early learning standards serve as their current source. However, other responses indicate that the terms “program standards” and “learning standards” themselves may not even be part of the current child care vocabulary. These results suggest that potential ELCF grantees might be better positioned to help child care centers incorporate stricter program and learning standards if they design varying levels of training and technical assistance based on the variety of child care quality “starting points.”
A method of assessing the resilience of whole communities of children: An example from rural Australia
Dunstan Debra A,Todd Anna K
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-6-17
Abstract: Background Children living in socioeconomic disadvantage are at risk of poor mental health outcomes. In order to focus and evaluate population health programs to facilitate children’s resilience, it is important to accurately assess baseline levels of functioning. With this end in mind, the aim of this study was to test the utility of 1) a voluntary random sampling method and 2) quantitative measures of adaptation (with national normative data) for assessing the resilience of children in an identified community. Method This cross-sectional study utilized a sample of participants (N = 309), including parents (n = 169), teachers (n = 20) and children (n = 170; age range = 5-16 years), recruited from the schools in Tenterfield; a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in New South Wales, Australia. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; including parent, teacher and youth versions) was used to measure psychological well-being and pro-social functioning, and NAPLAN results (individual children’s and whole school’s performance in literacy and numeracy) were used to measure level of academic achievement. Results The community’s disadvantage was evident in the whole school NAPLAN performance but not in the sample’s NAPLAN or SDQ results. The teacher SDQ ratings appeared to be more reliable than parent’s ratings. The voluntary random sampling method (requiring parental consent) led to sampling bias. Conclusions The key indicators of resilience - psychological well-being, pro-social functioning and academic achievement – can be measured in whole communities using the teacher version of the SDQ and whole school results on a national test of literacy and numeracy (e.g., Australia’s NAPLAN). A voluntary random sample (dependent upon parental consent) appears to have limited value due to the likelihood of sampling bias.
A Bayesian Periodogram Finds Evidence for Three Planets in 47 Ursae Majoris
Philip C. Gregory,Debra A. Fischer
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16233.x
Abstract: A Bayesian analysis of 47 Ursae Majoris (47 UMa) radial velocity data confirms and refines the properties of two previously reported planets with periods of 1079 and 2325 days and finds evidence for an additional long period planet with a period of approximately 10000 days. The three planet model is found to be 10^5 times more probable than the next most probable model which is a two planet model. The nonlinear model fitting is accomplished with a new hybrid Markov chain Monte Carlo (HMCMC) algorithm which incorporates parallel tempering, simulated annealing and genetic crossover operations. Each of these features facilitate the detection of a global minimum in chi-squared. By combining all three, the HMCMC greatly increases the probability of realizing this goal. When applied to the Kepler problem it acts as a powerful multi-planet Kepler periodogram. The measured periods are 1078 \pm 2, 2391{+100}{-87}, and 14002{+4018}{-5095}d, and the corresponding eccentricities are 0.032 \pm 0.014, 0.098{+.047}{-.096}, and 0.16{+.09}{-.16}. The results favor low eccentricity orbits for all three. Assuming the three signals (each one consistent with a Keplerian orbit) are caused by planets, the corresponding limits on planetary mass (M sin i) and semi-major axis are (2.53{+.07}{-.06}MJ, 2.10\pm0.02au), (0.54\pm0.07MJ, 3.6\pm0.1au), and (1.6{+0.3}{-0.5}MJ, 11.6{+2.1}{-2.9}au), respectively. We have also characterized a noise induced eccentricity bias and designed a correction filter that can be used as an alternate prior for eccentricity, to enhance the detection of planetary orbits of low or moderate eccentricity.
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