oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 595 )

2018 ( 821 )

2017 ( 754 )

2016 ( 1108 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462260 matches for " Debra A Tonetti "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /462260
Display every page Item
Prevention of breast cancer by recapitulation of pregnancy hormone levels
Debra A Tonetti
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr750
Abstract: Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the protective effect of a full-term pregnancy before age 20 years on the risk for developing breast cancer, as compared with women who have never had a full-term pregnancy. Rodent models can replicate the protective effect of pregnancy against the development of carcinogen-induced mammary cancer. Most intriguing is the ability to prevent mammary cancers in these rodent models by recreating the hormonal milieu of pregnancy by providing estradiol and progesterone to achieve pregnancy levels, either before or after the carcinogenic insult. In this issue of Breast Cancer Research, Rajkumar and coworkers [1] take a step further in recapitulating the protective effect of pregnancy. They demonstrate that both natural and synthetic estrogens in combination with progestins at lower doses and with shorter durations of treatment are capable of providing the protective effect. These studies are compelling because this hormonal regimen may be applicable to the prevention of human breast cancer. However, this approach, despite impressive preclinical studies, may be difficult to translate into a clinical trial.The protective effect afforded by full-term pregnancy in women who are 20 years old or younger, as compared with nulliparous women, is recognized among all ethnic groups, but the mechanism of this effect is not fully understood. Rodent models have been extensively utilized to demonstrate the role of pregnancy [2,3] and hormones simulating pregnancy [4,5] in preventing mammary carcinogenesis. Actually, two separate models have been used to demonstrate the protective effects of parity: a pretreatment model and a post-treatment model [6]. In the pretreatment model the hormonal treatment is given before the carcinogen, whereas in the post-treatment model the carcinogen is given first, followed by the hormone treatment. The latter is the model used by Rajkumar and coworkers [1]. The fact that the timing of hormonal treatment – bef
PKC and ER Are Associated with Triple-Negative Breast Cancers in African American and Caucasian Patients
Debra A. Tonetti,Weihua Gao,Diana Escarzaga,Kelly Walters,April Szafran,John S. Coon
International Journal of Breast Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/740353
Abstract: Although the incidence of breast cancer in the United States is higher in Caucasian women compared with African American women, African-American patients have more aggressive disease as characterized by a higher percentage of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), high-grade tumors, and a higher mortality rate. PKCα is a biomarker associated with endocrine resistance and poor prognosis and ERβ is emerging as a protective biomarker. Immunohistochemical analysis of ERβ and PKCα expression was performed on 198 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary infiltrating ductal carcinomas from 105 African-American and 93 Caucasian patients. PKCα is positively correlated with TNBC in patients of both races and with high tumor grade in African-American patients. Patients with TNBC express less nuclear ERβ compared with all other subtypes. We find no difference in frequency or intensity of PKCα or ERβ expression between African-American and Caucasian patients. PKCα and ERβ are discussed as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of patients with TNBC. 1. Introduction Although African American women have a lower incidence of breast cancer than Caucasians, repeated studies have shown that they suffer from more aggressive disease characterized by diagnosis at an earlier age, later stage, higher grade, and greater mortality [1–4]. While socioeconomic factors contribute in part to this disparity in survival, they do not account for all differences noted between these two racial groups [3, 5, 6]. In particular, premenopausal African American women present with a higher incidence of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a molecular subtype that has limited targeted therapeutic options [3, 7]. Current investigations are focused upon the identification of new therapeutic targets specific to the aggressive TNBC form of breast cancers found more frequently in young African American women and the development of more effective treatment modalities. One potential biomarker contributing to the aggressive nature of this disease in African American women is protein kinase Cα (PKCα). PKC is a serine/threonine protein kinase family of enzymes comprised of at least 12 isozymes that regulate numerous cellular functions [8]. PKCα in particular is involved in cell migration, apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation and plays a critical role in several disease processes including cancer [9]. Overexpression of PKCα is a marker of poor prognosis of breast cancers and is associated with antiestrogen resistance, ERα-negative tumors, and tumor aggressiveness [10–13]. Therefore,
A Real-World Observational Study of Patients with Advanced Melanoma Receiving First-Line Ipilimumab in a Community Practice Setting  [PDF]
Debra A. Patt, Debra Rembert, Menaka Bhor, Debajyoti Bhowmik, Sumati A. Rao
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.512110
Abstract: Background: Following approval of ipilimumab, this observational cohort study (CA184-332) was initiated to describe patient and disease characteristics, patterns of care, survival, and adverse events (AEs) in advanced melanoma (AM) patients treated with first-line ipilimumab in realworld US community practice. Methods: Adult patients with treatment-naive AM who received ≥1 dose of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg between April 2011 and September 2012 were retrospectively identified at US Oncology sites. Clinical data were abstracted from patient medical records. Results: Median age of the 157 patient cohorts was 66 years (range 21 - 91). 68.2% were male, and 90.5% had a cutaneous primary site. At ipilimumab initiation, 80.9% of patients had an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1; 54.1% were stage M1c; 34.4% had brain metastases; 24.8% had elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and 13.4% were positive for BRAF mutation. All 4 cycles of ipilimumab were completed by 55.8% of patients. At a median follow-up of 8.5 months (range 2.9 - 15.0), median overall survival was 11.5 months (95% CI: 8.9 - 16.6) and 1-year survival was 46.7% (95% CI: 38.1 - 54.9). During ipilimumab treatment, AEs were experienced by 63.7% of patients. The most frequent AEs were gastrointestinal (41.4%; diarrhea in 19.1%) and skin-related (28.0%; rash in 17.8%); 17.8% of patients had an AE that led to ipilimumab discontinuation. Conclusions: These real-world results are consistent with those from clinical trials and provide evidence supporting the effectiveness and safety of first-line ipilimumab 3 mg/kg monotherapy in patients with AM treated in a community practice setting.
Candida albicans as the Sole Organism Cultured from a Perirectal Abscess
Daniel Tonetti
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/913785
Abstract: Perirectal abscess is a common colorectal condition that may be present with or without a fistula. In most cases where a fistula coexists the organisms cultured are gut-derived organisms whereas skin-derived organisms are more common in patients without fistula formation. Candida albicans, despite being an microorganism often found in the gastrointestinal tract, has not previously been reported as an isolate from a perirectal abscess culture. Here we report the case of a patient taking cefazolin in whom a perirectal abscess was diagnosed via computed tomography and aspiration of which demonstrated growth of only C. albicans. Prior literature has demonstrated that the microorganisms cultured from patients with perirectal abscesses do not differ between patients in whom antimicrobials had been used previously and those who were antimicrobial-naïve, suggesting that there is a possibility that C. albicans is the sole organism responsible for the perirectal abscess in our patient. The patient underwent surgical drainage and was discharged with fluconazole and piperacillin/tazobactam, which led to the satisfactory recovery of the patient.
Candida albicans as the Sole Organism Cultured from a Perirectal Abscess
Daniel Tonetti
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/913785
Abstract: Perirectal abscess is a common colorectal condition that may be present with or without a fistula. In most cases where a fistula coexists the organisms cultured are gut-derived organisms whereas skin-derived organisms are more common in patients without fistula formation. Candida albicans, despite being an microorganism often found in the gastrointestinal tract, has not previously been reported as an isolate from a perirectal abscess culture. Here we report the case of a patient taking cefazolin in whom a perirectal abscess was diagnosed via computed tomography and aspiration of which demonstrated growth of only C. albicans. Prior literature has demonstrated that the microorganisms cultured from patients with perirectal abscesses do not differ between patients in whom antimicrobials had been used previously and those who were antimicrobial-na?ve, suggesting that there is a possibility that C. albicans is the sole organism responsible for the perirectal abscess in our patient. The patient underwent surgical drainage and was discharged with fluconazole and piperacillin/tazobactam, which led to the satisfactory recovery of the patient. 1. Background Perirectal abscess is a common colorectal disorder, more common in men than women [1, 2], that often requires surgical treatment. Most perirectal abscesses are thought to result from infection that originates in the anal crypts before extending into the anal glands in the intersphincteric plane [3, 4]. Approximately 90% of perirectal abscesses originate as cryptoglandular infections [5], with 80 to 90% of patients also having an accompanying fistula [2, 6]. Clinically, perianal or perirectal pain is the most common presenting symptom in abscesses in this area [7]. In patients with a fistula, the abscesses are more likely to contain multiple different organisms whereas abscesses without fistula tend to have less variety of flora and are more likely to isolate only one organism [2]. This suggests that fistula formation allows for more bacterial inoculation of the abscess. Most aerobic and anaerobic organisms isolated from perirectal abscesses are of gastrointestinal tract and skin flora origin [8]. Skin-derived organisms like Staphylococcus aureus are significantly more common in patients without fistula formation [2, 9, 10]. The mechanism of abscess formation from these organisms is thought to be due to skin-derived bacteria blocking apocrine glands, which is supported by the finding that fistulas are less likely to be present with abscesses containing Staphylococc [9, 10]. The incidence of gut-derived
Sex differences in stress-related receptors: ″micro″ differences with ″macro″ implications for mood and anxiety disorders
Bangasser Debra A
Biology of Sex Differences , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2042-6410-4-2
Abstract: Stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as unipolar depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), occur more frequently in women than in men. Emerging research suggests that sex differences in receptors for the stress hormones, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoids, contribute to this disparity. For example, sex differences in CRF receptor binding in the amygdala of rats may predispose females to greater anxiety following stressful events. Additionally, sex differences in CRF receptor signaling and trafficking in the locus coeruleus arousal center combine to make females more sensitive to low levels of CRF, and less adaptable to high levels. These receptor differences in females could lead to hyperarousal, a dysregulated state associated with symptoms of depression and PTSD. Similar to the sex differences observed in CRF receptors, sex differences in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function also appear to make females more susceptible to dysregulation after a stressful event. Following hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation, GRs are critical to the negative feedback process that inhibits additional glucocorticoid release. Compared to males, female rats have fewer GRs and impaired GR translocation following chronic adolescent stress, effects linked to slower glucocorticoid negative feedback. Thus, under conditions of chronic stress, attenuated negative feedback in females would result in hypercortisolemia, an endocrine state thought to cause depression. Together, these studies suggest that sex differences in stress-related receptors shift females more easily into a dysregulated state of stress reactivity, linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The implications of these receptor sex differences for the development of novel pharmacotherapies are also discussed.
The Social Determinants of Organ Trafficking: A Reflection of Social Inequity
Debra A. Budiani,Kabir Karim
Social Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Organ trafficking has become evident in its global scope and consequences. Poverty, vulnerability, destitution and a system of exploitative transplant practices are social determinants for commercial living organ donation. Guided by the WHO resolution on organ transplants and the Istanbul Declaration, transplant practices can advanced standards of greater social equality rather than exploit social determinants of poverty, vulnerability and destitution by way of exploitative health systems.
Early-type Stars: Most Favorable Targets for Astrometrically Detectable Planets in the Habitable Zone
Andrew Gould,Debra A. Fischer
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/377147
Abstract: Early-type stars appear to be a difficult place to look for planets astrometrically. First, they are relatively heavy, and for fixed planetary mass the astrometric signal falls inversely as the stellar mass. Second, they are relatively rare (and so tend to be more distant), and for fixed orbital separation the astrometric signal falls inversely as the distance. Nevertheless, because early-type stars are relatively more luminous, their habitable zones are at larger semi-major axis. Since astrometric signal scales directly as orbital size, this gives early-type stars a strong advantage, which more than compensates for the other two factors. Using the Hipparcos catalog, we show that early-type stars constitute the majority of viable targets for astrometric searches for planets in the habitable zone. We contrast this characteristic to transit searches, which are primarily sensitive to habitable planets around late-type stars.
Revealing A Universal Planet-Metallicity Correlation For Planets of Different Sizes Around Solar-Type Stars
Ji Wang,Debra A. Fischer
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The metallicity of exoplanet systems serves as a critical diagnostic of planet formation mechanisms. Previous studies have demonstrated the planet-metallicity correlation for large planets ($R_P\ \geq\ 4\ R_E$); however, a correlation has not been found for smaller planets. With a sample of 406 $Kepler$ Objects of Interest whose stellar properties are determined spectroscopically, we reveal a universal planet-metallicity correlation: not only gas-giant planets ($3.9\ R_E\ < R_P\ \leq\ 22.0\ R_E$) but also gas-dwarf ($1.7\ R_E\ < R_P\ \leq\ 3.9\ R_E$) and terrestrial planets ($R_P\ \leq\ 1.7\ R_E$) occur more frequently in metal-rich stars. The planet occurrence rates of gas-giant planets, gas-dwarf planets, and terrestrial planets are $9.30^{+5.62}_{-3.04}$, $2.03^{+0.29}_{-0.26}$, and $1.72^{+0.19}_{-0.17}$ times higher for metal-rich stars than for metal-poor stars, respectively.
Female gender but not season of birth is associated with mood seasonality in a near-equatorial Brazilian city
Milfont, Taciano L.;Tilyard, Benjamin A.;Gouveia, Valdiney V.;Tonetti, Lorenzo;Natale, Vincenzo;
Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0047-20852012000400010
Abstract: objective: studies conducted mainly in countries located in the northern hemisphere have shown that season of birth influences mood seasonality. greater mood seasonality has been observed for individuals born during spring/summer months than those born during autumn/winter months. expanding past research to the southern hemisphere, in this study we examine the influence of season of birth on mood seasonality in a sample of 1,247 healthy young brazilians. method: the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire was used to compute a global seasonality score as a measure of mood seasonality in a cross-sectional study. results: analysis of covariance was conducted to examine the effects of month of birth and gender on mood seasonality, with age entered as a covariate. a main effect of gender was observed, f (1, 1197) = 17.86, p < .01; partial eta-squared = .02, with mood seasonality being higher for females (m = 8) than for males (m = 7). contradicting previous findings, no significant main effect for month of birth was observed, f (1, 1197) = 0.65, p > .05. conclusion: the unexpected finding is tentatively explained by differences in geographic location and weather fluctuations between the sampling location in brazil and other countries where season of birth has been found to influence mood seasonality. additional studies with larger samples from the southern hemisphere are necessary to shed additional light on the possible significant influence of season of birth on mood.
Page 1 /462260
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.