Abstract:
A lagrangian for the $k-$ essence field is constructed for a constant scalar potential and its form determined when the scale factor was very small compared to the present epoch but very large compared to the inflationary epoch. This means that one is already in an expanding and flat universe. The form is similar to that of an oscillator with time-dependent frequency. Expansion is naturally built into the theory with the existence of growing classical solutions of the scale factor. The formalism allows one to estimate fluctuations of the temperature of the background radiation in these early stages (compared to the present epoch) of the universe. If the temperature at time $t_{a}$ is $T_{a}$ and at time $t_{b}$ the temperature is $T_{b}$ ($t_{b}>t_{a}$), then for small times, the probability for the logarithm of inverse temperature evolution can be estimated to be given by $$P(b,a)= |\langle ln~({1\over T_{b}}),t_{b}| ln~({1\over T_{a}}),t_{a}\rangle|^{2}$$ $$\approx\biggl({3m_{\mathrm Pl}^{2}\over \pi^{2} (t_{b}-t_{a})^{3}}\biggr) (ln~ T_{a})^{2}(ln~T_{b})^{2}\biggl(1 - 3\gamma (t_{a} + t_{b})\biggr)$$ where $0<\gamma<1$, $m_{\mathrm Pl}$ is the Planck mass and Planck's constant and the speed of light has been put equal to unity. There is the further possibility that a single scalar field may suffice for an inflationary scenario as well as the dark matter and dark energy realms.

Abstract:
It is shown that the two qubit CNOT (controlled NOT) gate can also be realised using q-deformed angular momentum states via the Jordan-Schwinger mechanism.Thus all the three gates necessary for universality i.e. Hadamard, Phase Shift and the two qubit CNOT gate are realisable with q-deformed oscillators.

Abstract:
A lagrangian for the $k-$ essence field is set up with canonical kinetic terms and incorporating the scaling relation of [1]. There are two degrees of freedom, {\it viz.},$q(t)= ln\enskip a(t)$ ($a(t)$ is the scale factor) and the scalar field $\phi$, and an interaction term involving $\phi$ and $q(t)$.The Euler-Lagrange equations are solved for $q$ and $\phi$. Using these solutions quantities of cosmological interest are determined. The energy density $\rho$ has a constant component which we identify as dark energy and a component behaving as $a^{-3}$ which we call dark matter. The pressure $p$ is {\it negative} for time $t\to \infty$ and the sound velocity $c_{s}^{2}={\partial p\over\partial\rho} << 1$. When dark energy dominates, the deceleration parameter $Q\to -1$ while in the matter dominated era $Q\sim {1\over 2}$. The equation of state parameter $w={p\over \rho}$ is shown to be consistent with $w={p\over\rho}\sim -1$ for dark energy domination and during the matter dominated era we have $w\sim 0$. Bounds for the parameters of the theory are estimated from observational data. Keywords: k-essence models, dark matter, dark energy PACS No: 98.80.-k

Abstract:
Van der Waerden's (VDW) colouring theorem in combinatoric number theory [1] has scope for physical applications.The solution of the two colour case has enabled the construction of an explicit mapping of an infinite, one dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising system to an effective pseudo- ferromagnetic one with the coupling constants in the two cases becoming related [2].Here the three colour problem is solved and the results are used to obtain new insights in the theory of complex lattices, particularly those relating to ternary alloys. The existence of these mappings of a multicolour lattice onto a monochromatic one with different couplings illustrates {\it a new form of duality}.

Abstract:
Starting from lagrangian field theory and the variational principle, we show that duality in equations of motion can also be obtained by introducing explicit spacetime dependence of the lagrangian. Poincare invariance is achieved precisely when the duality conditions are satisfied in a particular way. The same analysis and criteria are valid for both abelian and nonabelian dualities. We illustrate how (1)Dirac string solution (2)Dirac quantisation condition (3)t'Hooft-Polyakov monopole solutions and (4)a procedure emerges for obtaining {\it new} classical solutions of Yang-Mills (Y-M) theory. Moreover, these results occur in a way that is strongly reminiscent of the {\it holographic principle}.

Abstract:
We construct new maximally symmetric solutions for the metric. We then show that for a string moving in a background consisting of maximally symmetric gravity, dilaton field and second rank antisymmetric tensor field, the O(d) $\otimes$ O(d) transformation on the vacuum solutions, in general, gives inequivalent solutions that are not maximally symmetric.

Abstract:
We show that the usual physical meaning of maximal symmetry can be made to remain unaltered even if torsion is present. All that is required is that the torsion fields satisfy some mutually consistent constraints. We also give an explicit realisation of such a scenario by determining the torsion fields, the metric and the associated Killing vectors.

Abstract:
For emergent gravity metrics, presence of dark energy modifies the Hawking temperature. We show that for the spherically symmetric Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) background metric, the emergent metric can be mapped into a Robinson-Trautman blackhole. Allowed values of the dark energy density follow from rather general conditions. For some allowed value of the dark energy density this blackhole can have zero Hawking temperature i.e. the blackhole does not radiate. For a Kerr background along $\theta=0$, the emergent blackhole metric satisfies Einstein's equations for large $r$ and always radiates. Our analysis is done in the context of emergent gravity metrics having $k-$essence scalar fields $\phi$ with a Born-Infeld type lagrangian. In both cases the scalar field $\phi(r,t)=\phi_{1}(r)+\phi_{2}(t)$ also satisfies the emergent gravity equations of motion for $r\rightarrow\infty$ and $\theta=0$. \keywords{dark energy, k-essence, Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr blackholes} \pacs{98.80.-k ;95.36.+x}

Abstract:
k-essence scalar field models are usually taken to have lagrangians of the form ${\mathcal L}=-V(\phi)F(X)$ with $F$ some general function of $X=\nabla_{\mu}\phi\nabla^{\mu}\phi$. Under certain conditions this lagrangian in the context of the early universe can take the form of that of an oscillator with time dependent frequency. The Ermakov invariant for a time dependent oscillator in a cosmological scenario then leads to an invariant quadratic form involving the Hubble parameter and the logarithm of the scale factor. In principle, this invariant can lead to further observational probes for the early universe. Moreover, if such an invariant can be observationally verified then the presence of dark energy will also be indirectly confirmed.