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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462339 matches for " Deanna A. Sutton "
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Chrysosporium-Related Fungi and Reptiles: A Fatal Attraction
F. Javier Caba?es ,Deanna A. Sutton,Josep Guarro
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004367
Severe osteomyelitis caused by Myceliophthora thermophila after a pitchfork injury
Lauren Destino, Deanna A Sutton, Anna L Helon, Peter L Havens, John G Thometz, Rodney E Willoughby, Michael J Chusid
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-5-21
Abstract: A 4-year-old boy developed an extensive infection of his knee and distal femur following a barnyard pitchfork injury. Ultimately the primary infecting agent was determined to be Myceliophthora thermophila, a thermophilic melanized hyphomycete, rarely associated with human infection, found in animal excreta. Because of resistance to standard antifungal agents including amphotericin B and caspofungin, therapy was instituted with a prolonged course of terbinafine and voriconazole. Voriconazole blood levels demonstrated that the patient required a drug dosage (13.4 mg/kg) several fold greater than that recommended for adults in order to attain therapeutic blood levels.Unusual pathogens should be sought following traumatic farm injuries. Pharmacokinetic studies may be of critical importance when utilizing antifungal therapy with agents for which little information exists regarding drug metabolism in children.Myceliophthora thermophila is a thermophilic phaeoid mould found in pasture soil, wood chips, straw, mouldy hay, compost piles and other environmental settings where heat is generated. It is also found in the excreta and rumen of cattle and is a pathogen of cultivated mushrooms [1]. A rare cause of invasive human infections, it can be difficult to isolate and identify in clinical specimens. We recently cared for a 4-1/2 year old boy who developed osteomyelitis of the distal femur caused by direct inoculation of Myceliophthora thermophila via a pitchfork injury to his knee. The patient demonstrated severe destructive osseous and cartilaginous infection, with slow clinical improvement, requiring the prolonged use of multiple antifungal agents. Due to the limited number of agents to which this organism was susceptible, voriconazole therapy was instituted despite limited pharmacokinetic data in children. Prolonged therapy with terbinafine, a drug generally employed for superficial saprophytic infections of skin and nails also was utilized. This case demonstrates the diff
Phylogenetic Findings Suggest Possible New Habitat and Routes of Infection of Human Eumyctoma
G. Sybren de Hoog,Sarah A. Ahmed ,Mohammad J. Najafzadeh,Deanna A. Sutton,Maryam Saradeghi Keisari,Ahmed H. Fahal,Ursala Eberhardt,Gerard J. Verkleij,Lian Xin,Benjamin Stielow,Wendy W. J. van de Sande
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002229
Abstract: Eumycetoma is a traumatic fungal infection in tropical and subtropical areas that may lead to severe disability. Madurella mycetomatis is one of the prevalent etiologic agents in arid Northeastern Africa. The source of infection has not been clarified. Subcutaneous inoculation from plant thorns has been hypothesized, but attempts to detect the fungus in relevant material have remained unsuccessful. The present study aims to find clues to reveal the natural habitat of Madurella species using a phylogenetic approach, i.e. by comparison of neighboring taxa with known ecology. Four species of Madurella were included in a large data set of species of Chaetomium, Chaetomidium, Thielavia, and Papulaspora (n = 128) using sequences of the universal fungal barcode gene rDNA ITS and the partial LSU gene sequence. Our study demonstrates that Madurella species are nested within the Chaetomiaceae, a family of fungi that mainly inhabit animal dung, enriched soil, and indoor environments. We hypothesize that cattle dung, ubiquitously present in rural East Africa, plays a significant role in the ecology of Madurella. If cow dung is an essential factor in inoculation by Madurella, preventative measures may involve the use of appropriate footwear in addition to restructuring of villages to reduce the frequency of contact with etiologic agents of mycetoma. On the other hand, the Chaetomiaceae possess a hidden clinical potential which needs to be explored.
Whole Genome Sequence Typing to Investigate the Apophysomyces Outbreak following a Tornado in Joplin, Missouri, 2011
Kizee A. Etienne, John Gillece, Remy Hilsabeck, Jim M. Schupp, Rebecca Colman, Shawn R. Lockhart, Lalitha Gade, Elizabeth H. Thompson, Deanna A. Sutton, Robyn Neblett-Fanfair, Benjamin J. Park, George Turabelidze, Paul Keim, Mary E. Brandt, Eszter Deak, David M. Engelthaler
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049989
Abstract: Case reports of Apophysomyces spp. in immunocompetent hosts have been a result of traumatic deep implantation of Apophysomyces spp. spore-contaminated soil or debris. On May 22, 2011 a tornado occurred in Joplin, MO, leaving 13 tornado victims with Apophysomyces trapeziformis infections as a result of lacerations from airborne material. We used whole genome sequence typing (WGST) for high-resolution phylogenetic SNP analysis of 17 outbreak Apophysomyces isolates and five additional temporally and spatially diverse Apophysomyces control isolates (three A. trapeziformis and two A. variabilis isolates). Whole genome SNP phylogenetic analysis revealed three clusters of genotypically related or identical A. trapeziformis isolates and multiple distinct isolates among the Joplin group; this indicated multiple genotypes from a single or multiple sources. Though no linkage between genotype and location of exposure was observed, WGST analysis determined that the Joplin isolates were more closely related to each other than to the control isolates, suggesting local population structure. Additionally, species delineation based on WGST demonstrated the need to reassess currently accepted taxonomic classifications of phylogenetic species within the genus Apophysomyces.
The Job Demands-Resources model: Further evidence for the buffering effect of personal resources
Maxime A. Tremblay,Deanna Messervey
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v37i2.876
Abstract: Orientation: In work and organisational psychology, the adverse effects of job demands have often been demonstrated empirically for various indicators of job strain. Research purpose: Using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, the present study examined the role of compassion satisfaction, conceptualised as a personal resource, in buffering the relationship between job demands and job strain. Motivation for the study: Accordingly, four demanding aspects of the job (i.e. role overload, insufficiency, ambiguity and conflict) and one personal resource (i.e. compassion satisfaction) were used to test the central hypothesis that the interaction between (high) job demands and (low) personal resources produces the highest levels of anxiety and depression as indicators of job strain. Research design, approach and method: Hypotheses were tested amongst 122 military chaplains. Main findings: Results showed that compassion satisfaction partially moderated the relationship between job demands and job strain. More specifically, when compassion satisfaction was high, the effect of role overload on job strain was significantly reduced. However, the relationships between the other three role stressors and job strain were not offset by compassion satisfaction. Practical/managerial implications: The theoretical and practical implications of these findings for the JD-R model are discussed. Contribution/value-add: Despite the limitations of this study, the present findings still have important implications for future research and practice. Our findings highlight the fact that the empowerment of employees’ personal resources, as outlined in the JD-R model, may not only be of value for employees to thrive, but may also be particularly beneficial in terms of compassion satisfaction being viewed as a protective factor to adverse working conditions. How to cite this article: Tremblay, M.A., & Messervey, D. (2011). The Job Demands-Resources model: Further evidence for the buffering effect of personal resources. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 37(2), Art. #876, 10 pages. doi:10.4102/sajip.v37i2.876
Mixed Operators in Compressed Sensing
Matthew A. Herman,Deanna Needell
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: Applications of compressed sensing motivate the possibility of using different operators to encode and decode a signal of interest. Since it is clear that the operators cannot be too different, we can view the discrepancy between the two matrices as a perturbation. The stability of L1-minimization and greedy algorithms to recover the signal in the presence of additive noise is by now well-known. Recently however, work has been done to analyze these methods with noise in the measurement matrix, which generates a multiplicative noise term. This new framework of generalized perturbations (i.e., both additive and multiplicative noise) extends the prior work on stable signal recovery from incomplete and inaccurate measurements of Candes, Romberg and Tao using Basis Pursuit (BP), and of Needell and Tropp using Compressive Sampling Matching Pursuit (CoSaMP). We show, under reasonable assumptions, that the stability of the reconstructed signal by both BP and CoSaMP is limited by the noise level in the observation. Our analysis extends easily to arbitrary greedy methods.
Paved with Good Intentions: Analysis of a Randomized Block Kaczmarz Method
Deanna Needell,Joel A. Tropp
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.laa.2012.12.022
Abstract: The block Kaczmarz method is an iterative scheme for solving overdetermined least-squares problems. At each step, the algorithm projects the current iterate onto the solution space of a subset of the constraints. This paper describes a block Kaczmarz algorithm that uses a randomized control scheme to choose the subset at each step. This algorithm is the first block Kaczmarz method with an (expected) linear rate of convergence that can be expressed in terms of the geometric properties of the matrix and its submatrices. The analysis reveals that the algorithm is most effective when it is given a good row paving of the matrix, a partition of the rows into well-conditioned blocks. The operator theory literature provides detailed information about the existence and construction of good row pavings. Together, these results yield an efficient block Kaczmarz scheme that applies to many overdetermined least-squares problem.
Gas-particle interactions above a Dutch heathland: II. Concentrations and surface exchange fluxes of atmospheric particles
E. Nemitz ,M. A. Sutton
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2004,
Abstract: Micrometeorological measurements of size-segregated particle number fluxes above Dutch heathlands and forests have repeatedly shown simultaneous apparent emission of particles with a diameter (Dp)<0.18 μm and deposition of larger particles when measured with optical particle counters. In order to assess whether this observation may be explained by the equilibrium reaction of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonium (NH4+), a new numerical model is developed to predict the vertical concentration and flux profiles of the different species as modified by the interaction of equilibration and surface/atmosphere exchange processes. In addition to former studies, the new approach explicitly models the height-dependence of the NH4+ and total aerosol size-distribution. Using this model, it is demonstrated that both gas-to-particle conversion (gtpc) and aerosol evaporation can significantly alter the apparent surface exchange fluxes, and evoke the observed bi-directional particle fluxes under certain conditions. Thus, in general, the NH3-HNO3-NH4NO3 equilibrium needs to be considered when interpreting eddy-covariance particle fluxes. Applied to an extensive dataset of simultaneous flux measurements of particles and gases at Elspeet, NL, the model reproduces the diurnal pattern of the bi-directional exchange well. In agreement with the observation of fast NH4+ deposition, slow nitric acid deposition (both as measured by the aerodynamic gradient method) and small concentration products of NH3×HNO3 at this site, this study suggests that NH4+ evaporation at this site significantly alters surface exchange fluxes.
Phase field model of interfaces in single-component systems derived from classical density functional theory
Gunnar Pruessner,A. P. Sutton
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.054101
Abstract: Phase field models have been applied in recent years to grain boundaries in single-component systems. The models are based on the minimization of a free energy functional, which is constructed phenomenologically rather than being derived from first principles. In single-component systems the free energy is a functional of a ``phase field'', which is an order parameter often referred to as the crystallinity in the context of grain boundaries, but with no precise definition as to what that term means physically. We present a derivation of the phase field model by Allen and Cahn from classical density functional theory first for crystal-liquid interfaces and then for grain boundaries. The derivation provides a clear physical interpretation of the phase field, and it sheds light on the parameters and the underlying approximations and limitations of the theory. We suggest how phase field models may be improved.
CNS Control of Glucose Metabolism: Response to Environmental Challenges
Deanna M. Arble,Darleen A. Sandoval
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00020
Abstract: Over the last 15 years, considerable work has accumulated to support the role of the CNS in regulating postprandial glucose levels. As discussed in the first section of this review, the CNS receives and integrates information from afferent neurons, circulating hormones, and postprandially generated nutrients to subsequently direct changes in glucose output by the liver and glucose uptake by peripheral tissues. The second major component of this review focuses on the effects of external pressures, including high fat diet and changes to the light:dark cycle on CNS-regulating glucose homeostasis. We also discuss the interaction between these different pressures and how they contribute to the multifaceted mechanisms that we hypothesize contribute to the dysregulation of glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We argue that while current peripheral therapies serve to delay the progression of T2DM, generating combined obesity and T2DM therapies targeted at the CNS, the primary site of dysfunction for both diseases, would lead to a more profound impact on the progression of both diseases.
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