Abstract:
Let $\pi:X\to Y$ be a factor map, where $(X,\sigma_X)$ and $(Y,\sigma_Y)$ are subshifts over finite alphabets. Assume that $X$ satisfies weak specification. Let $\ba=(a_1,a_2)\in \R^2$ with $a_1>0$ and $a_2\geq 0$. Let $f$ be a continuous function on $X$ with sufficient regularity (H\"{o}lder continuity, for instance). We show that there is a unique shift invariant measure $\mu$ on $X$ that maximizes $\mu(f)+a_1h_\mu(\sigma_X)+ a_2h_{\mu\circ \pi^{-1}}(\sigma_Y)$. In particular, taking $f\equiv 0$ we see that there is a unique invariant measure $\mu$ on $X$ that maximizes the weighted entropy $a_1h_\mu(\sigma_X)+ a_2h_{\mu\circ \pi^{-1}}(\sigma_Y)$. This answers an open question raised by Gatzouras and Peres in \cite{GaPe96}. An extension is also given to high dimensional cases. As an application, we show the uniqueness of invariant measures with full Hausdorff dimension for certain affine invariant sets on the $k$-torus under a diagonal endomorphism.

Abstract:
We consider the multifractal structure of the Bernoulli convolution $\nu_{\lambda}$, where $\lambda^{-1}$ is a Salem number in $(1,2)$. Let $\tau(q)$ denote the $L^q$ spectrum of $\nu_\lambda$. We show that if $\alpha \in [\tau'(+\infty), \tau'(0+)]$, then the level set $$E(\alpha):={x\in \R:\; \lim_{r\to 0}\frac{\log \nu_\lambda([x-r, x+r])}{\log r}=\alpha}$$ is non-empty and $\dim_HE(\alpha)=\tau^*(\alpha)$, where $\tau^*$ denotes the Legendre transform of $\tau$. This result extends to all self-conformal measures satisfying the asymptotically weak separation condition. We point out that the interval $[\tau'(+\infty), \tau'(0+)]$ is not a singleton when $\lambda^{-1}$ is the largest real root of the polynomial $x^{n}-x^{n-1}-... -x+1$, $n\geq 4$. An example is constructed to show that absolutely continuous self-similar measures may also have rich multifractal structures.

Abstract:
For a real number $q>1$ and a positive integer $m$, let $Y_m(q):={\sum_{i=0}^n\epsilon_i q^i:\; \epsilon_i\in \{0, \pm 1,..., \pm m\}, n=0, 1,...}.$ In this paper, we show that $Y_m(q)$ is dense in ${\Bbb R}$ if and only if $q

Abstract:
Let $\{M_i\}_{i=1}^\ell$ be a non-trivial family of $d\times d$ complex matrices, in the sense that for any $n\in \N$, there exists $i_1... i_n\in \{1,..., \ell\}^n$ such that $M_{i_1}... M_{i_n}\neq {\bf 0}$. Let $P \colon (0,\infty)\to \R$ be the pressure function of $\{M_i\}_{i=1}^\ell$. We show that for each $q>0$, there are at most $d$ ergodic $q$-equilibrium states of $P$, and each of them satisfies certain Gibbs property.

Abstract:
Let $(X,T)$ be a topological dynamical system. We define the measure-theoretical lower and upper entropies $\underline{h}_\mu(T)$, $\bar{h}_\mu(T)$ for any $\mu\in M(X)$, where $M(X)$ denotes the collection of all Borel probability measures on $X$. For any non-empty compact subset $K$ of $X$, we show that $$\htop^B(T, K)= \sup \{\underline{h}_\mu(T): \mu\in M(X),\; \mu(K)=1\}, $$ $$\htop^P(T, K)= \sup \{\bar{h}_\mu(T): \mu\in M(X),\; \mu(K)=1\}. $$ where $\htop^B(T, K)$ denotes Bowen's topological entropy of $K$, and $\htop^P(T, K)$ the packing topological entropy of $K$. Furthermore, when $\htop(T)<\infty$, the first equality remains valid when $K$ is replaced by an arbitrarily analytic subset of $X$. The second equality always extends to any analytic subset of $X$.

Abstract:
We conduct the multifractal analysis of self-affine measures for "almost all" family of affine maps. Besides partially extending Falconer's formula of $L^q$-spectrum outside the range $1< q\leq 2$, the multifractal formalism is also partially verified.

Abstract:
The pressure function $P(A, s)$ plays a fundamental role in the calculation of the dimension of "typical" self-affine sets, where $A=(A_1,\ldots, A_k)$ is the family of linear mappings in the corresponding generating iterated function system. We prove that this function depends continuously on $A$. As a consequence, we show that the dimension of "typical" self-affine sets is a continuous function of the defining maps. This resolves a folklore open problem in the community of fractal geometry. Furthermore we extend the continuity result to more general sub-additive pressure functions generated by the norm of matrix products or generalized singular value functions for matrix cocycles, and obtain applications on the continuity of equilibrium measures and the Lyapunov spectrum of matrix cocycles.

Abstract:
Let $\beta>1$ and let $m>\be$ be an integer. Each $x\in I_\be:=[0,\frac{m-1}{\beta-1}]$ can be represented in the form \[ x=\sum_{k=1}^\infty \epsilon_k\beta^{-k}, \] where $\epsilon_k\in\{0,1,...,m-1\}$ for all $k$ (a $\beta$-expansion of $x$). It is known that a.e. $x\in I_\beta$ has a continuum of distinct $\beta$-expansions. In this paper we prove that if $\beta$ is a Pisot number, then for a.e. $x$ this continuum has one and the same growth rate. We also link this rate to the Lebesgue-generic local dimension for the Bernoulli convolution parametrized by $\beta$. When $\beta<\frac{1+\sqrt5}2$, we show that the set of $\beta$-expansions grows exponentially for every internal $x$.

Abstract:
Let $\pi:X\to Y$ be a factor map, where $(X,T)$ and $(Y,S)$ are topological dynamical systems. Let ${\bf a}=(a_1,a_2)\in {\Bbb R}^2$ with $a_1>0$ and $a_2\geq 0$, and $f\in C(X)$. The ${\bf a}$-weighted topological pressure of $f$, denoted by $P^{\bf a}(X, f)$, is defined by resembling the Hausdorff dimension of subsets of self-affine carpets. We prove the following variational principle: $$ P^{\bf a}(X, f)=\sup\left\{a_1h_\mu(T)+a_2h_{\mu\circ\pi^{-1}}(S)+\int f \;d\mu\right\}, $$ where the supremum is taken over the $T$-invariant measures on $X$. It not only generalizes the variational principle of classical topological pressure, but also provides a topological extension of dimension theory of invariant sets and measures on the torus under affine diagonal endomorphisms. A higher dimensional version of the result is also established.