Abstract:
We address the question of ambiguity in defining a Hamiltonian for a scalar field. We point out that the Hamiltonian for a real Klein-Gordon scalar field must be consistent with the energy density obtained from the Schrodinger equation in the non-relativistic regime. To achieve this we had to add some surface terms (total divergencies) to the standard Hamiltonian, which in general will not change the equations of motion, but will redefine energy. As an additional requirement, a Hamiltonian must be able to reproduce the equations of motion directly from Hamilton's equations defined by the principle of the least action. We find that the standard Hamiltonian does not always do so and that the proposed Hamiltonian provides a good non-relativistic limit. This is a hint that something as simple as the Hamiltonian of the real Klein-Gordon scalar field has to be treated carefully. We had illustrated our discussion with an explicit example of the kink solution.

Abstract:
Antifungal
activities of the commercial rice wine extracts of Allium fistulosum were
analyzed. Antifungal activities were tested against 7 pathogenic fungi by using
agar disc diffusion and tube dilution tests. The results show that the commercial rice wine extracts of Allium
fistulosum have strong antifungal
activity against Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Microsporumcanis ATCC 36299, M.
gypseum ATCC 24102, Trichophyton
mentagrophytes ATCC 9533, T.
rubrum ATCC 28188, and T. tonsurans ATCC 28942. The commercial rice wine extracts of different A. fistulosum parts
were found to exhibit significant antifungal activities with the minimal
inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 0.2 - 1.0 mg/mL. The antifungal
activity of the extracts of different A.
fistulosum parts was in the order of AFS

Abstract:
If the dark matter (DM) consists of a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), it can be produced and studied at future collider experiments like those at the LHC. The production of collider-stable WIMPs is characterized by hard scattering events with large missing transverse energy. Here we point out that the discovery of this well-characterized DM signal may turn out to be a red herring. We explore an alternative explanation -- fake dark matter -- where the only sources of missing transverse energy are standard model neutrinos. We present examples of such models, focusing on supersymmetric models with R-parity violation. We also briefly discuss means of differentiating fake dark matter from the production of new collider-stable particles.

Abstract:
In a simple model we investigate three competing orders: d-wave superconductivity, spin and orbital antiferromagnetism (AF) in the vicinity of a single vortex in a cuprate superconductor. We find that when the potential for the orbital AF $V_{d}$ is comparatively small, the spin-density-wave (SDW) order has an enhancement at the vortex core center, and the ''d-density-wave'' (DDW) order exhibits a rather weak behavior around the core and vanishing small away from the core. However, when $V_{d}$ becomes large, globally, the SDW order decreases and the DDW order increases; locally, not only the peak of the SDW order around the core still exists, though relatively suppressed, but also a local peak for the DDW order finally appears. Similar effects are also revealed for the features when varying doping. Comparisons with experiments are discussed.

Abstract:
Microgravity environment is a stress and extracellular signal that affects cellular morphology and function through signal transduction system, thus leading to certain biological effect. At present, many signaling pathways have been reported to be involved in the regulation of cell function under microgravity environment, such as NF-κB signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, HSP signaling pathway and so on, and these reports have laid a foundation for the molecular studies of cytolergy under outer space environment. The recent progress in the researches on intracellular signaling pathways affected by microgravity is herewith reviewed in present paper in the hope of providing references for understanding the cell activity in space environment, and to find the ways to alleviate the harmful effects caused by the microgravity environment.

Abstract:
Motivated by the recent "Cosmos Project" observation of dark-matter concentrations with no ordinary matter in the same place, we study the question of the existence of compact objects made of pure dark matter. We assume that the dark matter is neutralino, and compare its elastic and annihilation cross sections. We find that the two cross sections are of the same order of magnitude. This result has a straightforward and important consequence that neutralinos comprising a compact object can not achieve thermal equilibrium. To substantiate our arguments, by solving Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation we constructed a model of the star made of pure neutralinos. We explicitly showed that the condition for the thermal equilibrium supported by the Fermi pressure is never fulfilled inside the star. This neutralino state can not be described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. Thus, a stable neutralino star, which is supported by the Fermi pressure, can not exist. We also estimated that a stable star can not contain more than a few percents of neutralinos, most of the mass must be in the form of the standard model particles.

Abstract:
We present here a static solution for a large black hole (whose horizon radius is larger than the AdS radius) located on the brane in RSII model. According to some arguments based on the AdS/CFT conjecture, a solution for the black hole located on the brane in RSII model must encode quantum gravitational effects and therefore can not be static. We demonstrated that a static solution can be found if the bulk is not empty. The stress energy tensor of the matter distribution in the bulk for the solution we found is physical (i.e. it is non-singular with the energy density and pressure not violating any energy conditions). However, the solution can not be transformed into the Schwarzschild-like form and does not reduce to the Schwarzschild solution on the brane. We also present two other related static solutions. At the end, we discuss why the numerical methods failed so far in finding static solutions in this context, including the solutions we found analytically here.

Abstract:
The effect of a modulated magnetic field on the electronic structure of neutral graphene is examined in this paper. It is found that application of a small staggered modulated magnetic field does not destroy the Dirac-cone structure of graphene and so preserves its 4-fold zero-energy degeneracy. The original Dirac points (DPs) are just shifted to other positions in k space. By varying the staggered field gradually, new DPs with exactly the same electron-hole crossing energy as that of the original DPs, are generated, and both the new and original DPs are moving continuously. Once two DPs are shifted to the same position, they annihilate each other and vanish. The process of generation and evolution of these DPs with the staggered field is found to have a very interesting patten, which is examined carefully. Generally, there exists a corresponding branch of anisotropic massless fermions for each pair of DPs, resulting in that each Landau level (LL) is still 4-fold degenerate except the zeroth LL which has a robust $4n_t$-fold degeneracy with nt the number of pairs of DPs. As a result, the Hall conductivity $\sigma_{xy}$ shows a step of size $4n_te^2/h$ across zero energy.