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Mapping Irrigated Areas of Ghana Using Fusion of 30 m and 250 m Resolution Remote-Sensing Data
Murali Krishna Gumma,Prasad S. Thenkabail,Fujii Hideto,Andrew Nelson,Venkateswarlu Dheeravath,Dawuni Busia,Arnel Rala
Remote Sensing , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3040816
Abstract: Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana’s agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20–57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana’s Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics using GIDA and remote sensing. Extensive field campaigns to help in better classification and validation of irrigated areas using high (30 m ) to very high (<5 m) resolution remote sensing data that are fused with multi temporal data like MODIS are the way forward. This is especially true in accounting for small yet contiguous patches of irrigated areas from dug-wells and dug-outs.
The Gendered Face Of HIV/AIDS: The Move Towards Policy Implementation in Ghana
JJ Dawuni
Studies in Gender and Development in Africa , 2008,
Abstract: HIV/AIDS is more prevalent in Africa than in any other part of the world In Ghana, the first case of HIV/AIDS was report in 1986. Since then there have been efforts at various levels to combat its spread. This paper examines the institutional and structural frameworks for dealing with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Using concept analysis, it examines the frameworks for their gender and development implications. It finds that the social group most adversely affected by HIV/AIDS in Ghana is women. This is attributed to social, economic, cultural, and institutional obstacles. While efforts at fighting the disease by the Government of Ghana through the Ghana Aids Commission, donor partners and civil society are noteworthy, it is also clear that the frameworks applied do not adequately address the gendered nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Consequently, it is argued that any meaningful effort toward combating the epidemic will involve the empowerment of women through changes in government policies and the socio-cultural systems and practices that limit women’s options and choices. The role of women in developing national processes will be felt where women’s needs are taken into consideration and addressed as one of the key to their contribution to national development.
The content of protein and of amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety Rote Zonenkugel
Ewa Cie?lik,Agnieszka G?busia,Adam Florkiewicz,Barbara Mickowska
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum : Technologia Alimentaria , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered functional food ingredients because they affect body processes in ways that result in better health and in many diseases prevention. However, the Jerusalem artichoke deserves attention not only because of the content of fructans, recent studies also indicate a high protein content, including essential amino acids. Material and methods. The aim of the work was to establish the content of protein and amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety – Rote Zonenkugel. The content of protein was estimated by Dumas method. The amino acids composition was analysed with ion-change chromatography with postcolumn derivatisation and detection of ninhydryn reaction with automatic amino acids analyser. Results. The assessed liophylisate was characterised by high protein content (6.36%) in comparison to chicory (which is the main industrial source of fructans) and to commonly consumed potatoes. There was shown a few times higher content of essential amino acids (also of methionine) in comparison to chicory and potato. The examined essential amino acids were present in very advantagenous proportions. Conclusions. In Jerusalem artichoke tubers of Rote Zonenkugel variety of the high content of protein was established in comparison to other plant sources. The high content was found of amino acids with special stress on essential amino acids (esp. sulphur ones).
R. Mazzette,G. Busia,A. Mureddu,G. Fois
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2011.1s.99
Abstract: The hygienic status and the presence of some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp.) at slaughterhouses was evaluated in different matrix of sheep and lambs (carcass surface, faeces, fleeces and mesenteric lymph nodes) according to the Com. Reg. (EC) No 2073/2005. The 48% of sheep and 68.9% of lamb sampled carcasses resulted allocated into the marginal category for Aerobic colony count, while the 28% and 42.2% respectively were allocated into unacceptable category for Enterobacteriaceae. S.aureus was isolated more frequently in fleeces (11.5%), carcasses (12.6%) of lambs than sheep. L. monocytogenes was found in fleeces and carcass of two sheep and in faeces of four lambs, while Salmonella spp. was detected only in sheep carcasses of a single plant.
R. Mazzette,G. Busia,A. Mureddu,R. Mazza
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2012.4.71
Abstract: Fleeces, carcass surface, mucosal gut and faeces samples, collected from 95 slaughtered sheep and lambs from three abattoirs, were examined. The aim of this study was: 1) to evaluate the prevalence of the Verocytotoxic E. coli (VTEC); 2) to obtain virulence profile (stx1, stx2, hlyA and eae) by multiplex PCR; 3) to define the ovine-specific serogroup pathogenic power for the humans. An overall prevalence of 11.1% (adults 14%, lambs 7.8%) was found by direct PCR test. The VTEC occurrence was 18.9% in fleeces, 14.7% on carcasses and 10.5% in mucosal gut. According to the multiplex PCR the following results were obtained: 21% of the isolates belonged to VTEC pathogroup, within 92% were EHEC; 37.9% were identified as EPEC pathogroup. Forty one % of the strains were negative for all the genes. None of the isolates belonged to O157 and 0146 serogroups, while the 57% resulted O91.
Upregulation of CRABP1 in human neuroblastoma cells overproducing the Alzheimer-typical Aβ42 reduces their differentiation potential
Markus Uhrig, Peter Brechlin, Olaf Jahn, Yuri Knyazev, Annette Weninger, Laura Busia, Kamran Honarnejad, Markus Otto, Tobias Hartmann
BMC Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-6-38
Abstract: A combined transcriptomics/proteomics analysis was performed to measure the effects of intracellularly generated Aβ peptides in human neuroblastoma cells. Data was validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and a functional validation was carried out using RNA interference.Here we studied the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to increased or decreased Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels generated in human neuroblastoma cells. Genome-wide expression profiles (Affymetrix) and proteomic approaches were combined to analyze the cellular response to the changed Aβ42- and Aβ40-levels. The cells responded to this challenge with significant changes in their expression pattern. We identified several dysregulated genes and proteins, but only the cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (CRABP1) was up-regulated exclusively in cells expressing an increased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. This consequently reduced all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation, validated by CRABP1 knock down, which led to recovery of the cellular response to RA treatment and cellular sprouting under physiological RA concentrations. Importantly, this effect was specific to the AD typical increase in the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, whereas a decreased ratio did not result in up-regulation of CRABP1.We conclude that increasing the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio up-regulates CRABP1, which in turn reduces the differentiation potential of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, but increases cell proliferation. This work might contribute to the better understanding of AD neurogenesis, currently a controversial topic.Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder because mutations in multiple genes are involved along with non-genetic factors [1]. The risk may be determined by the effects of numerous loci, some of which may produce only minor contributions. Amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin1, presenilin2 and the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele have been associated with AD [2,3]. These genes are assum
Monitoring HIV Viral Load in Resource Limited Settings: Still a Matter of Debate?
Mireia Arnedo, Elena Alonso, Nell Eisenberg, Laura Ibá?ez, Cecilia Ferreyra, Angels Jaén, Laurence Flevaud, Samuel Khamadi, Paul Roddy, Jose Maria Gatell, David Dalmau, Busia OR Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047391
Abstract: Introduction Consequences of lack of viral monitoring in predicting the effects of development of HIV drug resistance mutations during HAART in resource-limited settings (RLS) is still a matter of debate. Design To assess, among HIV+ patients receiving their first-line HAART, prevalence of virological failure and genotypic resistance mutations pattern in a Médécins Sans Frontières/Ministry of Health programme in Busia District (Kenya). Methods Patients with HAART treatment for ≥12 months were eligible for the study and those with HIV-RNA ≥5000 copies/ml underwent genotypic study. Total HIV-1 RNA from Dried Blood Spots was extracted using Nuclisens method. Results 926 patients were included. Among 274 (29.6%) patients with detectable viral load, 55 (5.9%) experienced treatment failure (viral load >5.000 copies/ml); 61.8% were female and 10 (18.2%) had clinical failure. Median CD4 cell count was 116 cell/mm3 (IQR: 54–189). Median HIV-RNA was 32,000 copies/ml (IQR: 11000–68000). Eighteen out of 55 (33%) samples could be sequenced on PR and RT genes, with resistance associated mutations (RAMs) in 15 out of 18 samples (83%). Among patients carrying RAMs, 12/15 (81%) harboured RAMs associated to thymidine analogues (TAMs). All of them (100%) showed M184V resistance associated mutation to lamivudine as well as NNRTI's RAMS. Conclusions Virological failure rate in resource-limited settings are similar to those observed in developed countries. Resistance mutation patterns were concordant with HAART received by failing patients. Long term detectable viral load confers greater probability of developing resistance and as a consequence, making difficult to find out a cost-effective subsequent treatment regimen.
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