Abstract:
Introduction: Post-varicocelectomy
pain is a considerable pain with probability of promotion toward chronicity. Some
reasons, including surgical technique or nerve injury and inappropriate
attention to treatment of acute pain play role in the emergence of acute pain.
The pain could lead to limitation in movement and working, patient
dissatisfaction and waste of medical resources. Transcutaneous electrical nerve
stimulation (TENS) therapy as the patient control analgesia (PCA) is associated
with reduction of pain intensity and analgesic consumptions. This study aimed
to evaluate the effect of TENS therapy on reducing the acute and chronic pain
following varicocelectomy. Methods and Materials: The study was
conducted after obtaining the approval of the local Institute Ethics Committee
and written informed consent from all of the patients. Eighty patients
scheduled for undergoing varicocelectomy, were randomly classified according to
a randomization list prepared using online software at a 1:1 ratio to Groups A (intervention group) and B (placebo group). In postoperative and recovery
period, Group A received TENS therapy for 30 minutes in parallel to surgical
scar with high frequency by sensory level. Group B was treated with off-device.
The treatment course was replicated for the two groups at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after operation. Then, postoperative
pain was measured by VAS (visual analogue scale) at the same time and after 1
week and 1, 2 and 3
months. The amount of used analgesics was recorded. Results: The results
showed that based on the VAS, pain significantly decreased after intervention
in 2 hours (25% with VAS = 5 versus 32.5% with VAS = 8 in control group). The differences among, amount of used analgesics at 2, 6 and 12
hours were significant with p-value = 0.001, <0.0001 and
=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: TENS therapy could efficiently decrease
pain degree for hours, weeks and months after varicocelectomy; this was associated
with decreased post-operation analgesic requirements.

Abstract:
Surfaces of optical elements are deposited by antireflection coatings (ARCs) to decrease the reflection of light. Surface needs treatment before depositing the ARC one of treatment processes by plasma for adhesion improvement and surface hardening. A comparison of RF and DC glow discharges treated CR-39 polymer films gives insight into the mechanism of these surface processes. The surface properties of the plasma-treated samples are examined by microscopy techniques include contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and refractive index measurements. Results show that the plasma treatment modifies the polymer surface in both composition and morphology. It is found that the surface wettability is enhanced after plasma treatment. It is found that, RF plasma is more effective than DC plasma in CR-39 surface modification, as it implants more oxygen atoms into the surface and makes the contact angle declining to a lower level.

Abstract:
Mammary gland neoplasms of all types in wildlife are considered rare and underreported. Three female mongooses of unknown age were presented with lethargy, limping and poor body condition. On examination, the mongooses were anaemic, dehydrated and anorexic with palpable subcutaneous masses in the mammary gland region, overlain by ulcerated skin. At postmortem examination the masses were firm, multinodular and nonencapsulated. Microscopically, the normal mammary gland architecture was disrupted by neoplastic epithelial cells arranged in tubules, acini and fewer anaplastic solid sheets. Metastatic cells were found in other organs. The tumors were classified as simple adenocarcinoma, grade II. This is the first report of mammary gland neoplasia in mongooses.

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of Fine Neddle Aspiration (FNA) in the diagnosis and managementof Tuberculous Lymphadenitis. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Pathology department PunjabMedical College, Faisalabad and Author and Co Author’s Lab. PERIOD: (1995-98). MATERIAL ANDMETHODS: Fine needle aspiration using 22-23 gauge needle was performed in 383 patients with enlargedlymph nodes. All patients were referred for open lymph node biopsy and the subsequent biopsy report wasavailable in 323 patients for comparison with cytology. RESULTS: Cytology reported 190 cases ofTuberculous lymphadenitis. In 25 cases false positive diagnosis of chronic reactive lymphadenitis was givenon cytology giving an overall technique in the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. CONCLUSION:FNA is a safe, rapid, reliable and a cost effective technique in the diagnosis and management of tuberculouslymphenitis, provided done by experienced cytopathologist.

Abstract:
In the last five years, increasing evidence has emerged for a genetic predisposition to atrial fibrillation (AF). Framingham Heart Study investigators observed that the odds of developing AF were three times higher for individuals with at least one parent in whom AF was diagnosed before the age of 75 than in those without a parental history of AF . Similarly, in a large group of Icelanders, the risk of developing AF was increased nearly five-fold if one parent was affected before the age of 60 . Furthermore, single rare genetic variants thought to be responsible for familial AF have been identified . Multiple genetic loci and mutations in ion channels, gap junction proteins , and signaling molecules have been described in Mendelian forms of AF. However, the extent to which genetic factors contribute to the more common forms of AF remained unclear until the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS).

Abstract:
We study the \textit{quantum} partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with centre 4-velocity u^a. When perturbed energy eigenvalues are properly taken into account, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities include a very specific, sub-dominant term which is independent of \textit{kinematic} details such as box dimensions and mass of particles. This term is characterized by the dimensionless quantity, \Xi=R_00 \Lambda^2, where R_00=R_ab u^a u^b and \Lambda=\beta \hbar c, and, quite intriguingly, produces Euler relation of homogeneity two between entropy and energy -- a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics.

Abstract:
We analyze the generic structure of Einstein tensor projected onto a 2-D spacelike surface S defined by unit timelike and spacelike vectors u_i and n_i respectively, which describe an accelerated observer (see text). Assuming that flow along u_i defines an approximate Killing vector X_i, we then show that near the corresponding Rindler horizon, the flux j_a=G_ab X^b along the ingoing null geodesics k_i normalised to have unit Killing energy, given by j . k, has a natural thermodynamic interpretation. Moreover, change in cross-sectional area of the k_i congruence yields the required change in area of S under virtual displacements \emph{normal} to it. The main aim of this note is to clearly demonstrate how, and why, the content of Einstein equations under such horizon deformations, originally pointed out by Padmanabhan, is essentially different from the result of Jacobson, who employed the so called Clausius relation in an attempt to derive Einstein equations from such a Clausius relation. More specifically, we show how a \emph{very specific geometric term} [reminiscent of Hawking's quasi-local expression for energy of spheres] corresponding to change in \emph{gravitational energy} arises inevitably in the first law: dE_G/d{\lambda} \alpha \int_{H} dA R_(2) (see text) -- the contribution of this purely geometric term would be missed in attempts to obtain area (and hence entropy) change by integrating the Raychaudhuri equation.

Abstract:
As was first noted by Isaac Newton, the two most famous ellipses of classical mechanics, arising out of the force laws F~r and F~1/r^2, can be mapped onto each other by changing the location of center-of-force. What is perhaps less well known is that this mapping can also be achieved by the complex transformation, z -> z^2. We give a simple derivation of this result (and its generalization) by writing the Gaussian curvature in its "covariant" form, and then changing the \emph{metric} by a conformal transformation which "mimics" this mapping of the curves. The final result also yields a relationship between Newton's constant G, mass M of the central attracting body in Newton's law, the energy E of the Hooke's law orbit, and the angular momenta of the two orbits. We also indicate how the conserved Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector for the 1/r^2 force law transforms under this transformation, and compare it with the corresponding quantities for the linear force law. Our main aim is to present this duality in a geometric fashion, by introducing elementary notions from differential geometry.

Abstract:
We consider metrics related to each other by functionals of a scalar field $\varphi(x)$ and it's gradient $\nabla \varphi(x)$, and give transformations of some key geometric quantities associated with such metrics. Our analysis provides useful and elegant geometric insights into the roles of {\it conformal} and {\it non-conformal} metric deformations in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of $\varphi$-foliations. As a special case, we compare {\it conformal} and {\it disformal} transforms to highlight some non-trivial scaling differences. We also study the geometry of {\it equi-geodesic} surfaces formed by points $p$ at constant geodesic distance $\sigma(p,P)$ from a fixed point $P$, and apply our results to a specific disformal geometry based on $\sigma(p,P)$ which was recently shown to arise in the context of spacetime with a minimal length.

Abstract:
Many generic arguments support the existence of a minimum spacetime interval $L_0$. Such a "zero-point" length can be naturally introduced in a locally Lorentz invariant manner via Synge's world function bi-scalar $\Omega(p,P)$ which measures squared geodesic interval between spacetime events $p$ and $P$. I show that there exists a \emph{non-local} deformation of spacetime geometry given by a \emph{disformal} coupling of metric to the bi-scalar $\Omega(p,P)$, which yields a geodesic interval of $L_0$ in the limit $p \rightarrow P$. Locality is recovered when $\Omega(p,P) >> L_0^2/2$. I discuss several conceptual implications of the resultant small-scale structure of spacetime for QFT propagators as well as spacetime singularities.