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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 65545 matches for " David; Franco-Marina "
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Adult smoking trends in Mexico: an analysis of the Mexican National Addiction Surveys
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000800004
Abstract: objective: to describe and explain the recent trends of four smoking indicators in mexico. materials and methods: comparable data from four national probabilistic household surveys (1988-1992) were analyzed using statistical techniques for survey data. the analysis was restricted to persons aged 18 to 65 years. changes in indicators compare 2002 to 1988. results: the overall prevalence of never smokers increased by 10% and increased more in men. the prevalence of daily smokers shows a 16% reduction in men and reductions are concentrated in persons 45 and older. the average number of cigarettes smoked daily shows a 31% decrease in men and no decrease in women. the prevalence of heavy smokers (one pack or more) is 60% higher in women in 2002. conclusions: mexico does not closely follow the who model for the evolving tobacco epidemic. nevertheless, the tobacco epidemic is in an advanced stage, with a decreasing prevalence in men and a rising one in women and the young. the improvement in the smoking situation was mainly due to the country?s economic stagnation during the analyzed period and to public awareness of the dangers of tobacco exposure rather than to a sound control policy on the part of the state.
Prevalencia y riesgos asociados con pacientes adultos con asma de 40 a?os o más de la Ciudad de México: estudio de base poblacional
García-Sancho,Cecilia; Fernández-Plata,Rosario; Martínez-Brise?o,David; Franco-Marina,Francisco; Pérez-Padilla,José Rogelio;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000400013
Abstract: objectives: to determine the prevalence of asthma and the association between sociodemographic characteristics, spirometry, respiratory symptoms, quality of life and sleep in adults > 40 years. materials and methods: this report is part of our study (latin american research project obstructive pulmonary), held in mexico city and the metropolitan area in 2003. we used logistic regression models adjusted for study design, where asthma was the dependent and independent variable respiratory symptoms, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics among others. results: the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was: 3.3% in men and 6.2% in women. decreased lung function in asthmatics was observed. in multivariate analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, asthmatics had a higher risk of excessive daytime sleepiness more snoring [or = 3.2 (95% ci 1.4-7.4), p= 0.008], and more frequent work absences due to respiratory problems [or = 5.1 (95% ci 2.5-10.4), p<0.0001]. conclusions: the prevalence of asthma was 5%. asthmatics showed lower quality of life and lung function.
Tendencias del tabaquismo en adultos en México entre 1988 y 2008
Franco-Marina,Francisco; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800006
Abstract: objetive. to describe the changes in several smoking indicators occurred in mexico over the past two decades and to explore if the tobacco control policies implemented in mexico, since 2004, show a favorable impact on tobacco consumption by 2008. materials and methods. we analyze trends in comparable data on the prevalence of never and daily smokers, using the five national addiction surveys conducted between 1988 and 2008. the analysis is restricted to persons aged 18 through 65 years. data are adjusted for age, sex and marginality index. results. between 2002 and 2008 the percentage of never smokers has increased by 19.6% and the percentage of daily smokers has decreased by 24.8%. these changes were more important in men, but in women the average number of cigarettes consumed decreased by 21.1% over the compared period and there was also a 13.9% rise in the percentage of women attempting to quit. daily smokers prevalence has declined more rapidly since 2005, coincidently with an increase in cigarette taxation. conclusions. over the past two decades there has been in mexico an increase in the percentage of never smokers and a decline in the percentage of daily smokers. a positive impact is observed, few years after the implementation of more effective tobacco control policies in mexico, notably higher taxation of tobacco products.
Role of active and passive smoking on lung cancer etiology in Mexico City
Franco-Marina,Francisco; Villalba Caloca,Jaime; Corcho-Berdugo,Alexander; ,;
Salud Pública de México , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342006000700009
Abstract: objetive: to estimate the association between passive and active smoking exposures and lung cancer in mexico city and the corresponding attributable risks. material and methods: data was analyzed from a multicenter population-based case-control study conducted in mexico city. results: ors for lung cancer in ever smokers were 6.2 (95% ci 3.9-10.2) for males and 2.8 (95% ci 1.7-4.4) for females. passive smoking at home showed an overall or of 1.8 (95% ci 1.3-2.6), similar in both genders. attributable risk for active smoking for both genders combined, and for males and females separately, was estimated at 55, 76 and 27%, respectively. attributable risk for passive smoking at home was 17% for females, 3.9% for males and 12% for the entire population. conclusions: in mexico city smoking is attributable to a smaller proportion of lung cancer cases than in developed countries. this is explained by a lower intensity of smoking in the mexican population.
Breast cancer mortality in mexico: an age-period-cohort analysis
Franco-Marina,Francisco; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo; López-Carrillo,Lizbeth;
Salud Pública de México , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342009000800005
Abstract: objective: to assess the age, period and cohort effects on breast cancer (bc) mortality in mexico. material and methods: age, period and cohort curvature trends for bc mortality were estimated through the poisson regression model proposed by holford. results: nationally, bc death rates have leveled off since 1995 in most age groups. bc mortality trends are mainly determined by birth cohort and age effects in mexico. women born between 1940 and 1955 show the highest rate of increase in bc mortality. women born afterwards still show an increasing trend but at a much lower rate. mammography and adjuvant therapy have had a limited impact on mortality. potential reasons for observed patterns are discussed. an increase in bc mortality in mexico is expected in the following decades. conclusions: mammography screening programs and timely access to effective treatment should be a national priority to reverse the expected increasing bc mortality trend.
Panorama epidemiológico de la mortalidad por cáncer en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: 1991-1995
Salud Pública de México , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341997000400004
Abstract: objective. this paper describes the global cancer mortality and the specific mortality patterns for the main neoplasms among adult members of the mexican institute of social security (imss). material and methods. using official death certificates and information about the population of the imss members during 1991-1995, national and regional annual global cancer mortality as well as specific mortality rates for the 10 most important malignant neoplasms by sex were estimated among people older than 20 years of age. the trends for these neoplasms during the study period were estimated by means of poisson regression. the rate differences in specific cancer mortality by region and sex, for the two major neoplasms, were calculated subtracting specific regional rates from the respective national rate in 1995. results. the global mortality rate for cancer among men increased from 76.2 in 1991 to 94.8 x 100 000 imss′members in 1995; and among women from 85.6 to 105.8 x 100 000 imss′members, representing an increment of 24.4 and 24% men and women, respectively, during the study period. among men, neoplasm of kidney, leukemia, pancreas, prostate and lung showed the major increment; among women, neoplasm of colon, breast, pancreas, leukemia and liver showed the most significant increment. conclusions. in the imss it is necessary the integration of a population based cancer registry. the registry will play a main role in disease surveillance and control; will give basic information over incidence and temporal variation, and could be the main source of information for epidemiologic research, as well as planning and evaluation of the quality of medical attention services such as prevention and early diagnosis and treatment.
Panorama epidemiológico de la mortalidad por cáncer en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: 1991-1995
Salud Pública de México , 1997,
Abstract: Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de la mortalidad global por cáncer, así como la mortalidad específica para las principales neoplasias malignas en población adulta derechohabiente (DH) del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Material y métodos. A partir de los registros oficiales de defunción y de la información sobre la población para los a os 1991-1995, se estimaron las tasas anuales de mortalidad global y específica para las 10 principales neoplasias malignas por sexo, en mayores de 20 a os. Asimismo, se estimaron las tendencias nacionales y estatales para las principales neoplasias malignas para cada sexo por medio de regresión de Poisson. Se calcularon las diferencias de tasas de mortalidad específica para las dos principales neoplasias por sexo restando las tasas estatales a su respectiva tasa nacional en 1995. Resultados. La mortalidad global por cáncer en los hombres se incrementó de 76.2 en 1991, a 94.8 por 100 000 DH en 1995; entre las mujeres, ésta se incrementó de 85.6 a 105.8 por 100 000 DH, representando un incremento de 24.4 y de 24% en hombres y mujeres, respectivamente, durante el periodo de estudio. Entre los hombres las neoplasias de ri ón, leucemia, páncreas, próstata y pulmón; y entre mujeres las de colon, mama, páncreas, leucemias e hígado, mostraron los incrementos más significativos. Conclusiones. En el IMSS es impostergable la conformación de un registro poblacional de cáncer que permita una mejor vigilancia epidemiológica de las neoplasias y una evaluación permanente del impacto de programas específicos para la prevención y control de este padecimiento en las instituciones.
Nurse home visits with or without alert buttons versus usual care in the frail elderly: a randomized controlled trial
Favela J,Castro LA,Franco-Marina F,Sánchez-García S
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2013,
Abstract: Jesús Favela,1 Luis A Castro,2 Francisco Franco-Marina,3 Sergio Sánchez-García,4 Teresa Juárez-Cedillo,4 Claudia Espinel Bermudez,4 Julia Mora-Altamirano,4 Marcela D Rodriguez,5 Carmen García-Pe a41Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education of Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico; 2Sonora Institute of Technology, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico; 3National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Mexican Ministry of Health, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Epidemiologic and Health Service Research Unit, Aging Area, XXI Century National Medical Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Mexico City, Mexico; 5School of Engineering, MyDCI, Autonomous University of Baja California, Mexicali, MexicoObjective: To assess whether an intervention based on nurse home visits including alert buttons (NV+AB) is effective in reducing frailty compared to nurse home visits alone (NV-only) and usual care (control group) for older adults.Design: Unblinded, randomized, controlled trial.Setting: Insured population covered by the Mexican Social Security Institute living in the city of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.Participants: Patients were aged over 60 years with a frailty index score higher than 0.14.Intervention: After screening and informed consent, participants were allocated randomly to the control, NV+AB, or NV-only groups.Measurements: The primary outcome was the frailty score 9 months later. Quality of life, depression, comorbidities, health status, and health service utilization were also considered.Results: The framing sample included 819 patients. Of those, 591 were not located because they did not have a landline/telephone (341 patients), they had died (107), they were ill (50), or they were not currently living in the city (28). A screening interview was applied to 228 participants, and 57 had a score ≤0.14, 171 had ≥0.14, and 16 refused to complete the baseline questionnaire. A home visit was scheduled for 155 patients. However, 22 did not complete the baseline questionnaire. The final 133 subjects were randomized into the NV+AB (n = 45), NV-only (n = 44), and control (n = 44) groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the groups. The mean age overall was 76.3 years (standard deviation 4.7) and 45% were men. At the baseline, 61.65% were classified as frail. At end of follow-up the adjusted prevalence of frailty in NV+AB group was 23.3% versus 58.3% in the control group.Conclusion: An intervention based on NV+AB seems to have a positive effect on frailty scores.Keywords: gerontechnology, frailty, elderly
A frailty index to predict the mortality risk in a population of senior mexican adults
José García-González, Carmen García-Pe?a, Francisco Franco-Marina, Luis Gutiérrez-Robledo
BMC Geriatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-9-47
Abstract: A frailty index was developed using 34 variables. To obtain the index, the mean of the total score for each individual was obtained. Survival analyses techniques were used to examine the risk ratios for the different levels of the frailty index. Kaplan-Meier estimates were obtained, adjusted for age and gender. Cox proportional hazards models were also built to obtain hazard ratio estimates.A total of 4082 participants was analyzed. Participants had an average age of 73 years and 52.5% were women. On average, participants were followed-up for 710 days (standard deviation = 111 days) and 279 of them died. Mortality increased with the frailty index level, especially in those with levels between .21 to .65, reaching approximately 17% and 21%, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models showed that participants with frailty index levels associated to increased mortality (.21 and higher) represent 24.0% of those aged 65-69 years and 47.6% of those 85 and older.The frailty index shows the properties found in the other studies, it allows stratifying older Mexican into several groups different by the degree of the risk of mortality, and therefore the frailty index can be used in assessing health of elderly.Frailty in the elderly can be regarded as nonspecific vulnerability to adverse health outcomes, caused by multiple factors [1]. Although in the literature there are many other operationalizations of a frailty definition [2-7], two of them have been widely used. One approach, proposed by Fried et al, considers frailty a distinct clinical syndrome not synonymous with either co morbidity or disability [8]. Under this perspective, frailty is present when an individual has three of the following criteria: unintentional weight loss (10 lbs in past year), self-reported exhaustion, weakness (grip strength), slow walking speed, and low physical activity. Additionally, an intermediate status (prefrailty) is also identified when the individual presents one or two of the above crit
Factores de riesgo de cáncer cervicouterino invasor en mujeres mexicanas
Tirado-Gómez,Laura Leticia; Mohar-Betancourt,Alejandro; López-Cervantes,Malaquías; García-Carrancá,Alejandro; Franco-Marina,Francisco; Borges,Guilherme;
Salud Pública de México , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342005000500004
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the association between invasive cervical cancer (cc) and high risk human papilloma virus (hr-hpv) (viral load and type 16), along with other gynecological and socioeconomic factors. material and methods: individually matched case-control study (215 women with invasive cc and 420 controls). the study population was recruited between 2000 and 2001. a set of variables traditionally linked with cc (gynecological and socioeconomic factors) and two variables related to hpv infection (viral load and type 16) were assessed. hybrid capture ii was used to detect hr-hpv dna. viral load was measured by light measurements expressed as relative light units (rlu) and they were categorized for analysis into four groups: negative (<1 rlu), low viral load (1-49 rlu), middle load (50-499 rlu) and high load (>499 rlu). the analysis included univariate, bivariate and multivariate techniques being the final step the estimation of odds ratios (or) by means of conditional logistic regression models. results: the probability of having invasive cc was 78 times higher in patients with infection of hr-hpv. risk increases with hpv type 16 (or=429.7) as compared with other types of hr-hpv (or=64.1). an important trend was observed with the increase of the viral load (from 46.6 with low viral load; to 250.7 with intermediate and 612.9 with high load). the findings also indicate significant diferences in the viral load between cases and controls according to age groups and hr-hpv types (16 versus others high risk types). finally, the partner-demographic and obstetrical variables related to the disease increased the risk of invasive cc. no association between cc and smoking was observed in this population. conclusions: this study helps in identifying women at higher risk of developing invasive cc as a subset of those patients infected with hr-hpv. the findings point strongly to the importance of the viral load in hr-hpv as a co-factor in the development of this disease. this
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