Abstract:
We present a mathematical framework that unifies the quantum causal history formalism from theoretical high energy physics and the directed graph operator framework from the theory of operator algebras. The approach involves completely positive maps and directed graphs and leads naturally to a new class of operator algebras.

Abstract:
Noncommutative multivariable versions of weighted shifts arise naturally as `weighted' left creation operators acting on Fock space. We investigate the unital weak operator topology closed algebras they generate. The unweighted case yields noncommutative analytic Toeplitz algebras. The commutant can be described in terms of weighted right creation operators when the weights satisfy a condition specific to the noncommutative setting. We prove these algebras are reflexive when the eigenvalues for the adjoint algebra include an open set in complex $n$-space, and provide a new elementary proof of reflexivity for the unweighted case. We compute eigenvalues for the adjoint algebras in general, finding geometry not present in the single variable setting. Motivated by this work, we obtain general information on the spectral theory for noncommuting $n$-tuples of operators.

Abstract:
We present a generalization of bilateral weighted shift operators for the noncommutative multivariable setting. We discover a notion of periodicity for these shifts, which has an appealing diagramatic interpretation in terms of an infinite tree structure associated with the underlying Hilbert space. These shifts arise naturally through weighted versions of certain representations of the Cuntz C$^*$-algebras $O_n$. It is convenient, and equivalent, to consider the weak operator topology closed algebras generated by these operators when investigating their joint reducing subspace structure. We prove these algebras have non-trivial reducing subspaces exactly when the shifts are doubly-periodic; that is, the weights for the shift have periodic behaviour, and the corresponding representation of $O_n$ has a certain spatial periodicity. This generalizes Nikolskii's Theorem for the single variable case.

Abstract:
Non-commutative versions of Arveson's curvature invariant and Euler characteristic for a commuting $n$-tuple of operators are introduced. The non-commutative curvature invariant is sensitive enough to determine if an $n$-tuple is free. In general both invariants can be thought of as measuring the freeness or curvature of an $n$-tuple. The connection with dilation theory provides motivation and exhibits relationships between the invariants. A new class of examples is used to illustrate the differences encountered in the non-commutative setting and obtain information on the ranges of the invariants. The curvature invariant is also shown to be upper semi-continuous.

Abstract:
We show that the representations of the Cuntz C$^\ast$-algebras $O_n$ which arise in wavelet analysis and dilation theory can be classified through a simple analysis of completely positive maps on finite-dimensional space. Based on this analysis, an application in quantum information theory is obtained; namely, a structure theorem for the fixed point set of a unital quantum channel. We also include some open problems motivated by this work.

Abstract:
The non-commutative analytic Toeplitz algebra is the weak operator topology closed algebra generated by the left regular representation of the free semigroup on $n$ generators. The structure theory of contractions in these algebras is examined. Each is shown to have an $H^\infty$ functional calculus. The isometries defined by words are shown to factor only as the words do over the unit ball of the algebra. This turns out to be false over the full algebra. The natural identification of weakly closed left ideals with invariant subspaces of the algebra is shown to hold only for a proper subcollection of the subspaces.

Abstract:
Non-commutative multivariable versions of weighted shift operators arise naturally as `weighted' left creation operators acting on the Fock space Hilbert space. We identify a natural notion of periodicity for these $N$-tuples, and then find a family of inductive limit algebras determined by the periodic weighted shifts which can be regarded as non-commutative multivariable generalizations of the Bunce-Deddens C*-algebras. We establish this by proving that the C*-algebras generated by shifts of a given period are isomorphic to full matrix algebras over Cuntz-Toeplitz algebras. This leads to an isomorphism theorem which parallels the Bunce-Deddens and UHF classification scheme.

Abstract:
We give a short introduction to operator quantum error correction. This is a new protocol for error correction in quantum computing that has brought the fundamental methods under a single umbrella, and has opened up new possibilities for protecting quantum information against undesirable noise. We describe the various conditions that characterize correction in this scheme.

Abstract:
This is an exposition of some of the aspects of quantum computation and quantum information that have connections with operator theory. After a brief introduction, we discuss quantum algorithms. We outline basic properties of quantum channels, or equivalently, completely positive trace preserving maps. The main theorems for quantum error detection and correction are presented and we conclude with a description of a particular passive method of quantum error correction.

Abstract:
We investigate the possibility that a background independent quantum theory of gravity is not a theory of quantum geometry. We provide a way for global spacetime symmetries to emerge from a background independent theory without geometry. In this, we use a quantum information theoretic formulation of quantum gravity and the method of noiseless subsystems in quantum error correction. This is also a method that can extract particles from a quantum geometric theory such as a spin foam model.