Abstract:
Let $\rho$ be an SRB (or "physical"), measure for the discrete time evolution given by a map $f$, and let $\rho(A)$ denote the expectation value of a smooth function $A$. If $f$ depends on a parameter, the derivative $\delta\rho(A)$ of $\rho(A)$ with respect to the parameter is formally given by the value of the so-called susceptibility function $\Psi(z)$ at $z=1$. When $f$ is a uniformly hyperbolic diffeomorphism, it has been proved that the power series $\Psi(z)$ has a radius of convergence $r(\Psi)>1$, and that $\delta\rho(A)=\Psi(1)$, but it is known that $r(\Psi)<1$ in some other cases. One reason why $f$ may fail to be uniformly hyperbolic is if there are tangencies between the stable and unstable manifolds for $(f,\rho)$. The present paper gives a crude, nonrigorous, analysis of this situation in terms of the Hausdorff dimension $d$ of $\rho$ in the stable direction. We find that the tangencies produce singularities of $\Psi(z)$ for $|z|<1$ if $d<1/2$, but only for $|z|>1$ if $d>1/2$. In particular, if $d>1/2$ we may hope that $\Psi(1)$ makes sense, and the derivative $\delta\rho(A)=\Psi(1)$ has thus a chance to be defined

Abstract:
The Lee-Yang circle theorem describes complex polynomials of degree $n$ in $z$ with all their zeros on the unit circle $|z|=1$. These polynomials are obtained by taking $z_1=...=z_n=z$ in certain multiaffine polynomials $\Psi(z_1,...,z_n)$ which we call Lee-Yang polynomials (they do not vanish when $|z_1|,...,|z_n|<1$ or $|z_1|,...,|z_n|>1$). We characterize the Lee-Yang polynomials $\Psi$ in $n+1$ variables in terms of polynomials $\Phi$ in $n$ variables (those such that $\Phi(z_1,...,z_n)\ne0$ when $|z_1|,...,|z_n|<1$). This characterization gives us a good understanding of Lee-Yang polynomials and allows us to exhibit some new examples. In the physical situation where the $\Psi$ are temperature dependent partition functions, we find that those $\Psi$ which are Lee-Yang polynomials for all temperatures are precisely the polynomials with pair interactions originally considered by Lee and Yang.

Abstract:
We consider a quantum spin system consisting of a finite subsystem connected to infinite reservoirs at different temperatures. In this setup we define nonequilibrium steady states and prove that the rate of entropy production in such states is nonnegative.

Abstract:
The classical theory of linear response applies to statistical mechanics close to equilibrium. Away from equilibrium, one may describe the microscopic time evolution by a general differentiable dynamical system, identify nonequilibrium steady states (NESS), and study how these vary under perturbations of the dynamics. Remarkably, it turns out that for uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems (those satisfying the "chaotic hypothesis"), the linear response away from equilibrium is very similar to the linear response close to equilibrium: the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations hold, and the fluctuation-dispersion theorem survives in a modified form (which takes into account the oscillations around the "attractor" corresponding to the NESS). If the chaotic hypothesis does not hold, two new phenomena may arise. The first is a violation of linear response in the sense that the NESS does not depend differentiably on parameters (but this nondifferentiability may be hard to see experimentally). The second phenomenon is a violation of the dispersion relations: the susceptibility has singularities in the upper half complex plane. These "acausal" singularities are actually due to "energy nonconservation": for a small periodic perturbation of the system, the amplitude of the linear response is arbitrarily large. This means that the NESS of the dynamical system under study is not "inert" but can give energy to the outside world. An "active" NESS of this sort is very different from an equilibrium state, and it would be interesting to see what happens for active states to the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem.

Abstract:
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium is a physically satisfactory theory centered on the linear response formula of Green-Kubo. This formula results from a formal first order perturbation calculation without rigorous justification. A rigorous derivation of Fourier's law for heat conduction from the laws of mechanics remains thus a major unsolved problem. In this note we present a deterministic mechanical model of a heat-conducting chain with nontrivial interactions, where kinetic energy fluctuations at the nodes of the chain are removed. In this model the derivation of Fourier's law can proceed rigorously.

Abstract:
We study the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a finite classical system subjected to nongradient forces $\xi$ and maintained at fixed kinetic energy (Hoover-Evans isokinetic thermostat). We assume that the microscopic dynamics is sufficiently chaotic (Gallavotti-Cohen chaotic hypothesis) and that there is a natural nonequilibrium steady state $\rho_\xi$. When $\xi$ is replaced by $\xi+\delta\xi$ one can compute the change $\delta\rho$ of $\rho_\xi$ (linear response) and define an entropy change $\delta S$ based on energy considerations. When $\xi$ is varied around a loop, the total change of $S$ need not vanish: outside of equilibrium the entropy has curvature. But at equilibrium (i.e. if $\xi$ is a gradient) we show that the curvature is zero, and that the entropy $S(\xi+\delta\xi)$ near equilibrium is well defined to second order in $\delta\xi$.

Abstract:
This paper reviews various applications of the theory of smooth dynamical systems to conceptual problems of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. We adopt a new point of view which has emerged progressively in recent years, and which takes seriously into account the chaotic character of the microscopic time evolution. The emphasis is on nonequilibrium steady states rather than the traditional approach to equilibrium point of view of Boltzmann. The nonequilibrium steady states, in presence of a Gaussian thermostat, are described by SRB measures. In terms of these one can prove the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. One can also prove a general linear response formula and study its consequences, which are not restricted to near equilibrium situations. Under suitable conditions the nonequilibrium steady states satisfy the pairing theorem of Dettmann and Morriss. The results just mentioned hold so far only for classical systems; they do not involve large size, i.e., they hold without a thermodynamic limit.

Abstract:
Starting from a hyperbolic toral automorphism, we obtain, for a small volume preserving perturbation, an exact and rigorous second order perturbation expansion of the Lyapunov exponents.

Abstract:
The language of operator algebras is of great help for the formulation of questions and answers in quantum statistical mechanics. In Chapter 1 we present a minimal mathematical introduction to operator algebras, with physical applications in mind. In Chapter 2 we study some questions related to the quantum statistical mechanics of spin systems, with particular attention to the time evolution of infinite systems. The basic reference for these two chapters is Bratteli-Robinson: Operator algebras and quantum statistical mechanics I, II. In Chapter 3 we discuss the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of quantum spin systems, as it is currently being developped.

Abstract:
This paper discusses entropy production in nonequilibrium steady states for infinite quantum spin systems. Rigorous results have been obtained recently in this area, but a physical discussion shows that some questions of principle remain to be clarified.