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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 53393 matches for " David Reilly "
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Gender, Culture, and Sex-Typed Cognitive Abilities
David Reilly
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039904
Abstract: Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d = ?.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d = .22 and across OECD nations, d = .13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d = .14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d = ?.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede’s cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated.
Improving Outcomes with Surgical Resection and Other Ablative Therapies in HCC
Rahul Deshpande,Derek O'Reilly,David Sherlock
International Journal of Hepatology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/686074
Abstract: With rising incidence and emergence of effective treatment options, the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex multidisciplinary process. There is still little consensus and uniformity about clinicopathological staging systems. Resection and liver transplantation have been the cornerstone of curative surgical treatments with recent emergence of ablative techniques. Improvements in diagnostics, surgical techniques, and postoperative care have lead to dramatically improved results over the years. The most appropriate treatment plan has to be individualised and depends on a variety of patient and tumour-related factors. Very small HCCs discovered on surveillance have the best outcomes. Patients with advanced cirrhosis and tumours within Milan criteria should be offered transplantation. Resection is best for small solitary tumours with preserved liver function. Ablative techniques are suitable for low volume tumours in patients unfit for either resection or transplantation. The role of downstaging and bridging therapy is not clearly established.
Profile of nelarabine: use in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Kelly M Reilly, David F Kisor
OncoTargets and Therapy , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S4770
Abstract: ofile of nelarabine: use in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Review (4655) Total Article Views Authors: Kelly M Reilly, David F Kisor Published Date August 2009 Volume 2009:2 Pages 219 - 228 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S4770 Kelly M Reilly1, David F Kisor2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Raabe College of Pharmacy, Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio, USA Abstract: Nelarabine is the prodrug of 9-β-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G) and is therapeutically classified as a purine nucleoside analog. Nelarabine is converted to ara-G by adenosine deaminase and transported into cells by a nucleoside transporter. Ara-G is subsequently phosphorylated to ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP), thereby initiating the therapeutic effect by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Nelarabine has been extensively studied in regards to its pharmacokinetics, and the data have demonstrated that ara-GTP preferentially accumulates in malignant T-cells. Clinical responses to nelarabine have been demonstrated in various T-cell malignancies and appear to correlate with a relatively high intracellular concentration of ara-GTP compared to nonresponders. Therefore, this unique drug feature of nelarabine accounts for clinical utilization in treating adult and pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Neuropathy is the most predominant adverse effect associated with nelarabine and the incidence correlates with the dose administered. Myelosuppression has been observed, with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia as the most common hematologic complications. This article reviews the pharmacology, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetic properties of nelarabine, as well as nelarabine's clinical efficacy in T-ALL, T-LBL, and other hematologic malignancies. The toxicity profile, dosage, and administration, and areas of ongoing and future research, are also presented.
Profile of nelarabine: use in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Kelly M Reilly,David F Kisor
OncoTargets and Therapy , 2009,
Abstract: Kelly M Reilly1, David F Kisor21Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Raabe College of Pharmacy, Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio, USAAbstract: Nelarabine is the prodrug of 9-β-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G) and is therapeutically classified as a purine nucleoside analog. Nelarabine is converted to ara-G by adenosine deaminase and transported into cells by a nucleoside transporter. Ara-G is subsequently phosphorylated to ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP), thereby initiating the therapeutic effect by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Nelarabine has been extensively studied in regards to its pharmacokinetics, and the data have demonstrated that ara-GTP preferentially accumulates in malignant T-cells. Clinical responses to nelarabine have been demonstrated in various T-cell malignancies and appear to correlate with a relatively high intracellular concentration of ara-GTP compared to nonresponders. Therefore, this unique drug feature of nelarabine accounts for clinical utilization in treating adult and pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Neuropathy is the most predominant adverse effect associated with nelarabine and the incidence correlates with the dose administered. Myelosuppression has been observed, with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia as the most common hematologic complications. This article reviews the pharmacology, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetic properties of nelarabine, as well as nelarabine's clinical efficacy in T-ALL, T-LBL, and other hematologic malignancies. The toxicity profile, dosage, and administration, and areas of ongoing and future research, are also presented.Keywords: nelarabine, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl guanine, ara-G
Improving Outcomes with Surgical Resection and Other Ablative Therapies in HCC
Rahul Deshpande,Derek O'Reilly,David Sherlock
International Journal of Hepatology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/686074
Abstract: With rising incidence and emergence of effective treatment options, the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex multidisciplinary process. There is still little consensus and uniformity about clinicopathological staging systems. Resection and liver transplantation have been the cornerstone of curative surgical treatments with recent emergence of ablative techniques. Improvements in diagnostics, surgical techniques, and postoperative care have lead to dramatically improved results over the years. The most appropriate treatment plan has to be individualised and depends on a variety of patient and tumour-related factors. Very small HCCs discovered on surveillance have the best outcomes. Patients with advanced cirrhosis and tumours within Milan criteria should be offered transplantation. Resection is best for small solitary tumours with preserved liver function. Ablative techniques are suitable for low volume tumours in patients unfit for either resection or transplantation. The role of downstaging and bridging therapy is not clearly established. 1. Introduction Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth commonest cancer in the world in men and is the third highest contributor towards any cancer-related mortality [1]. Although the highest number of cases relates to the Far East, Middle-East, and Africa, the last decades have seen nearly a doubling of the incidence of HCC in the western world, particularly in the United States with the trend still on the rise [2]. The vast majority of HCCs occur on a background of pre-existing liver disease, and more recently, Hepatitis C (HCV) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have emerged as the leading causes of cirrhosis and thereby, HCC. Unfortunately, late presentation is all too common, and a recent analysis of the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result) database revealed that just about 16% of patients were suitable for some kind of surgical therapy in the form of resection, transplantation, or ablation [3]. However, surgical and ablative modalities offer the only possibility of long-term cure. Surgical treatment options depend not only on the extent of the cancer but also on the status of the liver and the general condition of the patient. In theory, the best outcomes should be obtained in patients with well-compensated liver disease without severe portal hypertension, who are generally in good health and have a small tumour burden. Hence surveillance programmes have been established, particularly in high-risk geographical areas, for the early detection of HCCs to facilitate
Genetic Diversity of Black Salamanders (Aneides flavipunctatus) across Watersheds in the Klamath Mountains
Sean B. Reilly,Mitchell F. Mulks,Jason M. Reilly,W. Bryan Jennings,David B. Wake
Diversity , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/d5030657
Abstract: Here we characterize the genetic structure of Black Salamanders ( Aneides flavipunctatus) in the Klamath Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. We hypothesized that the Sacramento, Smith, Klamath, and Rogue River watersheds would represent distinct genetic populations based on prior ecological results, which suggest that Black Salamanders avoid high elevations such as the ridges that separate watersheds. Our mitochondrial results revealed two major lineages, one in the Sacramento River watershed, and another containing the Klamath, Smith, and Rogue River watersheds. Clustering analyses of our thirteen nuclear loci show the Sacramento watershed population to be genetically distinctive. Populations in the Klamath, Smith, and Rogue watersheds are also distinctive but not as differentiated and their boundaries do not correspond to watersheds. Our historical demographic analyses suggest that the Sacramento population has been isolated from the Klamath populations since the mid-Pleistocene, with negligible subsequent gene flow (2 Nm ≤ 0.1). The Smith and Rogue River watershed populations show genetic signals of recent population expansion. These results suggest that the Sacramento River and Klamath River watersheds served as Pleistocene refugia, and that the Rogue and Smith River watersheds were colonized more recently by northward range expansion from the Klamath.
Outcome related to impact on daily living: preliminary validation of the ORIDL instrument
David Reilly, Stewart W Mercer, Annemieke P Bikker, Tansy Harrison
BMC Health Services Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-7-139
Abstract: In the first study, 105 patients attending the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital (GHH) were followed-up at 12 months and changes in health status were measured by the EuroQol (EQOL) and the ORIDL. In the second study, 187 new patients at the GHH were followed-up at 3, 12, and 33 months, using the ORIDL, the Short Form 12 (SF-12), and the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP). In study three, 323 patients in primary care were followed for 1 month post-consultation using the ORIDL and MYMOP. In all 3 studies the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) was also used as an outcome measure.Study 1 showed substantial improvements in main complaint and well-being over 12 months using the ORIDL, with two-thirds of patients reporting improvements in daily living. These improvements were not significantly correlated with changes in serial measures of the EQOL between baseline and 12 months, but were correlated with the EQOL transitions measure. Study 2 showed step-wise improvements in ORIDL scores between 3 and 33 months, which were only weakly associated with similar changes in SF-12 scores. However, MYMOP change scores correlated well with ORIDL scores at all time points. Study 3 showed similar high correlations between ORIDL scores and MYMOP scores. In all 3 studies, ORIDL scores were also significantly correlated with PEI-outcome scores.There is significant agreement between patient outcomes assessed by the ORIDL and the EQOL transition scale, the MYMOP, and the PEI-outcome instrument, suggesting that the ORIDL may be a valid and sensitive tool for measuring change in relation to impact on life.The challenge of finding practical, patient-focussed, clinically-relevant outcome measures is a key issue in the increasing call for patient-centred care and clinical governance in health systems around the world [1,2]. However, there are relatively few patient-rated outcome measures that seek to measure change from the patients' perspective, using simple concepts such as change
Microwave Absorption by a Mesoscopic Quantum Hall Droplet
Jennifer Cano,Andrew C. Doherty,Chetan Nayak,David J. Reilly
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.165305
Abstract: We consider the absorption of microwaves by a quantum Hall droplet. We show that the number and velocities of charged edge modes can be directly measured from a droplet of known shape. In contrast to standard transport measurements, different edge equilibration regimes can be accessed in the same device. If there is a quantum point contact in the droplet, then quasiparticle properties, including braiding statistics, can be observed. Their effects are manifested as modulations of the microwave absorption spectrum that are, notably, first-order in the tunneling amplitude at the point contact.
Improving STEM Education in Research: Preliminary Report on the Development of a Computer-Assisted Student-Mentor Research Community  [PDF]
David Rios, Artem Chebotko, Christine Reilly, Ralph Carlson, Emmett Tomai, Amy A Weimer, Nicholas Weimer, Thomas Pearson, Francis Andoh-Baidoo, Robert Winkle, David Ammons, Joanne Rampersad
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.35090
Abstract: Research education in STEM disciplines currently suffers from 1) The inability to feasibly collect highly detailed data on both the student’s and mentor’s activities; 2) The lack of tools to assist students and mentors in organizing and managing their research activities and environments; and 3) The inability to correlate a student’s assessment results with their actual research activities. Together these three problems act to impede both the improvement and educational quality of student research experiences. We propose a computer-assisted student-mentor research community as a solution to these problems. Within this community setting, students and their mentors are provided tools to make their work easier, much like a word processor makes writing a letter easier. Through their use of these tools, details of student-mentor activities are automatically recorded in a relational database, without burdening users with the responsibility of archiving data. Equally important, student assessments of outcome can be directly related to student activity, allowing educators to identify practices resulting in successful research experiences. Community tools also facilitate the use of labor-intensive teaching laboratories involving real inquiry-based research. The community structure has the added benefit of allowing students to see, communicate and interact more freely with other students and their projects, thus enriching the student’s research experience. We provide herein a preliminary report on the development and testing of a prototype, student-mentor research community, and present its tools, an assessment of student interest in participating in the community, and discuss its further development into a nationally-available student-mentor research community.
Hyperpolarized Nanodiamond with Long Spin Relaxation Times
Ewa Rej,Torsten Gaebel,Thomas Boele,David E. J. Waddington,David J. Reilly
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9459
Abstract: The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance (MR), such as 13C-labeled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,000-fold boost in signal. A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarizaton technique is the inherently short spin relaxation times, typically < 60 seconds for 13C liquid-state compounds, which limit the time that the signal remains boosted. Here, we demonstrate that 1.1% natural abundance 13C spins in synthetic nanodiamond (ND) can be hyperpolarized at cryogenic and room temperature without the use of toxic free- radicals, and, owing to their solid-state environment, exhibit relaxation times exceeding 1 hour. Combined with the already established applications of NDs in the life-sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized MR.
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