Abstract:
The Homepage http://drnelson.utmem.edu/CytochromeP450.html webcite grew out of a need for unlimited space to present nomenclature and annotation information on cytochrome P450 sequences. The 1993 cytochrome P450 nomenclature paper [1] was 51 pages long and was the last dedicated P450 nomenclature publication before the website was opened in February 1995. That paper had 12 authors, all well known in the field. Multi-author agreement was the strategy of Daniel W. Nebert, who with Frank J. Gonzalez launched the standardised cytochrome P450 nomenclature system in 1987, [2] with follow-ups in 1989 [3] and 1991. [4] The P450 nomenclature prior to this system was fragmented and difficult, with many laboratories having their own shorthand notation for P450s, often based on molecular weight or migration position on gels. For example, CYP2A1 had six different names in the literature. The new CYP nomenclature was one of the first systematic nomenclatures for a protein superfamily and it became adopted for use by many other groups struggling with the rapid expansion of sequence data in the 1980s.The Cytochrome P450 Homepage was started on a desktop Macintosh Quadra 650, running WebStar as the server software. I believe MOSAIC was the web browser at that time. The 1993 paper had 221 P450 genes and 12 pseudogenes listed. [1] On 10th October, 1995 I gave a talk at the Third International Symposium on Cytochrome P450 Biodiversity in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, titled: '450 Cytochrome P450s', so the number of CYPs had doubled in less than two years. I posted a sequence alignment on a wall at that meeting with all the non-confidential P450s. This occupied about a 2 × 3 metre squared space, and everyone wanted to come to see their own sequences.Clearly, publications could not include such large alignments, and there was no space to discuss individual sequences. Even 51-page papers could only include long tables to list the genes. A website was the solution. The initial web pages were

Abstract:
An introduction to the defects which dominate the physics of superfluid He$^4$ films, of superconducting slabs and of crystalline and hexatic membranes is given. We first review point vortices in two-dimensional neutral superfluids and discuss the unusual screening which arises when the bosons are charged, as in superconducting films. Dislocation and disclination defects in crystalline membranes are discussed from a similar point of view. There is little or no screening in ``monolayer'' crystals, which are strongly constrained to lie in a flat two-dimensional plane. A strong nonlinear screening effect arises, however, in 2d membranes allowed to buckle into the third dimension. This screening drastically lowers dislocation and disclination energies, and forces crystalline membranes to melt at any finite temperature. We point out that buckled 5- and 7-fold disclinations in hexatic membranes have in general different logarithmically divergent energies. A similar asymmetry exists in the energies of 5- and 7-fold defects in {\it liquid} membranes. This difference determines the sign of the Gaussian bending rigidity, and has important consequences in membranes which can change their topology or with free boundary conditions.

Abstract:
Concepts from elementary quantum mechanics can be used to understand vortex line fluctuations in high-temperature superconductors. Flux lines are essentially classical objects, described by a string tension, their mutual repulsion, and interactions with pinning centers. The classical partition function, however, is isomorphic to the imaginary time path integral description of quantum mechanics. This observation is used to determine the thermal renormalization of critical currents, the decoupling field, the flux lattice melting temperature at low and moderate inductions, and to estimate the degree of entanglement in dense flux liquids. The consequences of the ``polymer glass'' freezing scenario, which assumes that the kinetic constraints of entanglement prevent field cooled flux liquids from crystallizing, are reviewed.

Abstract:
We propose coating spherical particles or droplets with anisotropic nano-sized objects to allow micron-scale colloids to link or functionalize with a four-fold valence, similar to the sp3 hybridized chemical bonds associated with, e.g., carbon, silicon and germanium. Candidates for such coatings include triblock copolymers, gemini lipids, metallic or semiconducting nanorods and conventional liquid crystal compounds. We estimate the size of the relevant nematic Frank constants, discuss how to obtain other valences and analyze the thermal distortions of ground state configurations of defects on the sphere.

Abstract:
Ordered states on spheres require a minimum number of topological defects. For the case of crystalline order, triangular lattices must be interrupted by an array of at least 12 five-fold disclination defects, typically sitting at the vertices of an icosahedron. For R>>a, where R is the sphere radius and a the particle spacing, the energy associated with these defects is very large. This energy can be lowered, however, either by buckling, as appears to be the case for large viruses, or by introducing unusual finite length grain boundary scars. The latter have been observed recently for colloidal particles adsorbed onto water droplets in oil.