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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 270708 matches for " David R. Ardila "
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The Balmer Wavelength Range of BP Tauri
David R. Ardila,Gibor Basri
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/309253
Abstract: We have analyzed all the observations of BP Tauri taken by the International Ultraviolet Explorer in the low resolution (6 A), long wavelength (from 1850 to 3350 A) range. This dataset contains 61 spectra. These spectra do not show any correlation between the continuum flux and the MgII line flux, thus resolving a standing controversy in the literature concerning the origin of the MgII line flux. There is no correlation between the color temperature of the UV continuum and the average value of its flux. Using models of the accretion process developed by Calvet & Gullbring (1998), we obtain energy fluxes, accretion spot sizes, and accretion rates from the IUE observations of BP Tauri. We find average energy fluxes of 5.0 10^11 ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1}, average spot sizes of 4.4 10^{-3} times the stellar surface, and average accretion rates of 1.6 10^-8 msun/yr. Our analysis shows that the particle energy flux and the UV flux in the stellar surface are proportional to each other. Most strikingly, we observe a correlation between accretion rate and spot size, with the spot size increasing as the square of the accretion rate. Based on the results of a simulation, we conclude that geometrical effects are not enough to account for this effect. Current models of the accretion process fail to reproduce such an effect, suggesting the need of using more realistic descriptions of the stellar field when treating magnetospheric accretion. There may also be an unmodelled efficiency factor that determines how matter is loaded into the field lines.
A Search for Disk Emission in Young Brown Dwarfs: L'-band Observations of sigma Orionis and TW Hydrae
Ray Jayawardhana,David R. Ardila,Beate Stelzer
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Studies of disks around young brown dwarfs are of paramount importance to our understanding of the origin, diversity and early evolution of sub-stellar objects. Here we present first results from a systematic search for disk emission in a spectroscopically confirmed sample of young objects near or below the sub-stellar boundary in a variety of star-forming regions. Our VLT and Keck L'-band observations of the sigma Orionis and TW Hydrae associations suggest that if a majority of brown dwarfs are born with disks, at least the inner regions of those disks evolve rapidly, possibly clearing out within a few million years.
A Survey for Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Upper-Scorpius OB Association
David R. Ardila,Eduardo L. Martin,Gibor Basri
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/301443
Abstract: The Upper-Scorpius association is the OB association nearest to the Sun (145 pc). Its young age (5 Myr) makes it an ideal place to search for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, as these objects should be relatively bright. We have performed a photometric search for the low-mass members of the association, using the R, I, and Z filters. The completeness limit is I=18.5 and the saturation limit is I=13. We obtain 138 candidate members, covering nearly the entire M spectral type range. We find an excess of brown dwarf candidates over the number predicted by a Miller-Scalo Initial Mass Function. In addition, we have performed infrared imaging and low resolution optical spectroscopy of selected candidates. We find that the infrared observations confirm the spectral types obtained with the optical photometry. Furthermore, we find H_alpha in emission in 20 of the 22 objects observed spectroscopically. As H_alpha is an indicator of youth, we believe that these 20 objects may belong to the association. One of them, UScoCTIO 128 has a very strong and constant H_alpha line (equivalent width: -130 A), and its position in the color magnitude diagram suggests that it is a brown dwarf with mass equal to 0.02 msun. Confirmation of this and the other candidates will have to wait for higher resolution observations that can reveal spectroscopic mass indicators like Li I and gravity indicators, such as K I and the subordinate lines of Na I.
Warm Debris Disks Candidates in Transiting Planets Systems
álvaro Ribas,Bruno Merín,David R. Ardila,Hervé Bouy
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201118306
Abstract: We have bandmerged candidate transiting planetary systems (from the Kepler satellite) and confirmed transiting planetary systems (from the literature) with the recent Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) preliminary release catalog. We have found 13 stars showing infrared excesses at either 12 and/or 22 microns. Without longer wavelength observations it is not possible to conclusively determine the nature of the excesses, although we argue that they are likely due to debris disks around the stars. If confirmed, our sample ~ doubles the number of currently known warm excess disks around old main sequence stars. The ratios between the measured fluxes and the stellar photospheres are generally larger than expected for Gyr-old stars, such as these planetary hosts. Assuming temperature limits for the dust and emission from large dust particles, we derive estimates for the disk radii. These values are comparable to the planet's semi-major axis, suggesting that the planets may be stirring the planetesimals in the system.
On the Relationship Between Debris Disks and Planets
ágnes Kóspál,David R. Ardila,Attila Moór,Péter ábrahám
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/L73
Abstract: Dust in debris disks is generated by collisions among planetesimals. The existence of these planetesimals is a consequence of the planet formation process, but the relationship between debris disks and planets has not been clearly established. Here we analyze Spitzer/MIPS 24 and 70 micrometer data for 150 planet-bearing stars, and compare the incidence of debris disks around these stars with a sample of 118 stars around which planets have been searched for, but not found. Together they comprise the largest sample ever assembled to deal with this question. The use of survival analysis techniques allows us to account for the large number of non-detections at 70 micrometer. We discovered 10 new debris disks around stars with planets and one around a star without known planets. We found that the incidence of debris disks is marginally higher among stars with planets, than among those without, and that the brightness of the average debris disk is not significantly different in the two samples. We conclude that the presence of a planet that has been detected via current radial velocity techniques is not a good predictor of the presence of a debris disk detected at infrared wavelengths.
Is it Round? Spectropolarimetry of the Type II-P Supernova 1999em
Douglas C. Leonard,Alexei V. Filippenko,David R. Ardila,Michael S. Brotherton
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/320959
Abstract: We present the first multi-epoch spectropolarimetry of a type II plateau supernova (SN II-P), with optical observations of SN 1999em on days 7, 40, 49, 159, and 163 after discovery. These data are used to probe the geometry of the electron-scattering atmosphere before, during, and after the plateau phase, which ended roughly 90 days after discovery. Weak continuum polarization with an unchanging polarization angle (theta ~ 160 deg) is detected at all epochs, with p ~ 0.2% on day 7, p ~ 0.3% on days 40 and 49, and p ~ 0.5% in the final observations. Distinct polarization modulations across strong line features are present on days 40, 49, 159, and 163. Uncorrected for interstellar polarization (which is believed to be quite small), polarization peaks are associated with strong P Cygni absorption troughs and nearly complete depolarization is seen across the H-alpha emission profile. The temporal evolution of the continuum polarization and sharp changes across lines indicate polarization intrinsic to SN 1999em. When modeled in terms of the oblate, electron-scattering atmospheres of Hoeflich, the observed polarization implies anasphericity of at least 7% during the period studied. The temporal polarization increase may indicate greater asphericity deeper into the ejecta. We discuss the implications of asphericity on the use of type II-P supernovae as primary extragalactic distance indicators through the expanding photosphere method (EPM). If asphericity produces directionally dependant flux and peculiar galaxy motions are characterized by sigma_v_rec = 300 km/s, it is shown that the agreement between previous EPM measurements of SNe II and distances to the host galaxies predicted by a linear Hubble law restrict mean SN II asphericity to values less than 30% (3-sigma) during the photospheric phase.
Herschel/PACS photometry of transiting-planet host stars with candidate warm debris disks
Bruno Merín,David R. Ardila,álvaro Ribas,Hervé Bouy,Geoffrey Bryden,Karl Stapelfeldt,Deborah Padgett
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322956
Abstract: Dust in debris disks is produced by colliding or evaporating planetesimals, remnants of the planet formation process. Warm dust disks, known by their emission at < 24 micron, are rare (4% of FGK main sequence stars) and especially interesting because they trace material in the region likely to host terrestrial planets, where the dust has a very short dynamical lifetime. Statistical analyses of the source counts of excesses as found with the mid-IR Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) suggest that warm-dust candidates found for the Kepler transiting-planet host-star candidates can be explained by extragalactic or galactic background emission aligned by chance with the target stars. These statistical analyses do not exclude the possibility that a given WISE excess could be due to a transient dust population associated with the target. Here we report Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 micron follow-up observations of a sample of Kepler and non-Kepler transiting-planet candidates' host stars, with candidate WISE warm debris disks, aimed at detecting a possible cold debris disk in any of them. No clear detections were found in any one of the objects at either wavelength. Our upper limits confirm that most objects in the sample do not have a massive debris disk like that in beta Pic. We also show that the planet-hosting star WASP-33 does not have a debris disk comparable to the one around eta Crv. Although the data cannot be used to rule out rare warm disks around the Kepler planet-hosting candidates, the lack of detections and the characteristics of neighboring emission found at far-IR wavelengths support an earlier result suggesting that most of the WISE-selected IR excesses around Kepler candidate host stars are likely due to either chance alignment with background IR-bright galaxies and/or to interstellar emission.
A Disk Census for Young Brown Dwarfs
Ray Jayawardhana,David R. Ardila,Beate Stelzer,Karl E. Haisch Jr
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/377144
Abstract: Recent surveys have identified sub-stellar objects down to planetary masses in nearby star-forming regions. Reliable determination of the disk frequency in young brown dwarfs is of paramount importance to understanding their origin. Here we report the results of a systematic study of infrared L'-band (3.8-micron) disk excess in ~50 spectroscopically confirmed objects near and below the sub-stellar boundary in several young clusters. Our observations, using the ESO Very Large Telescope, Keck I and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, reveal that a significant fraction of brown dwarfs harbor disks at a very young age. Their inner disk lifetimes do not appear to be vastly different from those of disks around T Tauri stars. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sub-stellar objects form via a mechanism similar to solar-mass stars.
Observations of T-Tauri Stars using HST-GHRS: II. Optical and Near UV lines
David R. Ardila,Gibor Basri,Frederick M. Walter,Jeff A. Valenti,Christopher M. Johns-Krull
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We have analyzed GHRS data of eight Classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and one Weak T Tauri star (WTTS). The GHRS data consist of an spectral range 40 A wide centered on 2800 A. For 4 of the CTTS we have nearly simultaneous optical observations which contain Halpha, Hbeta, HeI, NaD, and the CaII infrared triplet. The MgII resonance doublet is the strongest feature in the 2800 A range. This line has a fairly wide and symmetric emission component (~200 to \~300 km/s for the CTTSs), with a narrow central absorption and a wide blueshifted absorption superimposed to it. The narrow central absorption width and equivalent width are inconsistent with being due only to ISM clouds described in the literature, which lead us to conclude that it is partially due to non-LTE processes in the emission line region itself. The emission profile closely follows Halpha. Its large width in CTTS cannot be due to the Stark effect and we suggest that it is due to supersonic turbulence. All the stars show blueshifted absorptions that are evidence of outflows (terminal velocities \~300 km/s), with multiple flows observed in two stars. We show evidence that the wind is not spherical, with wind signatures being stronger for lower inclinations at a given accretion rate. We briefly compare other optical lines with the hot transition region lines observed in CTTS.
Observational Clues to Brown Dwarf Origins
Ray Jayawardhana,Subhanjoy Mohanty,Gibor Basri,David R. Ardila,Beate Stelzer,Karl E. Haisch Jr
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: Over the past year, we have conducted a multi-faceted program to investigate the origin and early evolution of brown dwarfs. Using high-resolution Keck optical spectra of ~30 objects near and below the sub-stellar boundary in several star-forming regions, we present compelling evidence for a T Tauri-like accretion phase in young brown dwarfs. Our systematic study of infrared L'-band (3.8-micron) disk excess in ~50 spectroscopically confirmed young very low mass objects reveal that a significant fraction of brown dwarfs harbor disks at a very young age. Their inner disk lifetimes do not appear to be vastly different from those of disks around T Tauri stars. Taken together, our findings are consistent with a common origin for most low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and isolated planetary mass objects.
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