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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 255221 matches for " David L. Block "
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Georges Lemaitre and Stiglers Law of Eponymy
David L. Block
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-32254-9_8
Abstract: One of the greatest discoveries of modern times is that of the expanding Universe, almost invariably attributed to Hubble (1929). What is not widely known is that the original treatise by Lemaitre (1927) contained a rich fusion of both theory and of observation. Stiglers law of eponymy is yet again affirmed: no scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer (Merton, 1957). An appeal is made for a Lemaitre Telescope, to honour the discoverer of the expanding universe.
Toward a dust penetrated classification of the evolved stellar Population II disks of galaxies
David L. Block,Ivanio Puerari
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: (abridged): To derive a coherent physical framework for the excitation of spiral structure in galaxies, one must consider the co-existence of two different dynamical components: a gas-dominated Population I disk (OB associations, HII regions, cold interstellar HI gas) and an evolved stellar Population II component. The Hubble classification scheme has as its focus, the morphology of the Population I component only. In the near-infrared, the morphology of evolved stellar disks indicates a simple classification scheme: the dominant Fourier m-mode in the dust penetrated regime, and the associated pitch angle. On the basis of deprojected K$'$ (2.1$\mu m$) images, we propose that the evolved stellar disks may be grouped into three principal dust penetrated archetypes: those with tightly wound stellar arms characterised by pitch angles at K$'$ of $\sim$ 10$^{\circ}$ (the $\alpha$ class), an intermediate group with pitch angles of $\sim$ 25$^{\circ}$ (the $\beta$ class) and thirdly, those with open spirals demarcated by pitch angles at K$'$ of $\sim$ 40$^{\circ}$ (the $\gamma$ bin). Both optically flocculent or grand design galaxies can reside within the {\it same} dust penetrated morphological bin. Any specific dust penetrated archetype may be the resident disk of {\it both} an early or late type galaxy in the optical regime. There is no correlation between our dust penetrated classes and optical Hubble binning; the Hubble tuning fork does not constrain the morphology of the old stellar Population II disks.
The Large Magellanic Cloud: A power spectral analysis of Spitzer images
Ivanio Puerari,David L. Block,Bruce G. Elmegreen,Frederic Bournaud
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7317-7_10
Abstract: We present a power spectral analysis of Spitzer images of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The power spectra of the FIR emission show two different power laws. At larger scales (kpc) the slope is ~ -1.6, while at smaller ones (tens to few hundreds of parsecs) the slope is steeper, with a value ~ -2.9. The break occurs at a scale around 100-200 pc. We interpret this break as the scale height of the dust disk of the LMC. We perform high resolution simulations with and without stellar feedback. Our AMR hydrodynamic simulations of model galaxies using the LMC mass and rotation curve, confirm that they have similar two-component power-laws for projected density and that the break does indeed occur at the disk thickness. Power spectral analysis of velocities betrays a single power law for in-plane components. The vertical component of the velocity shows a flat behavior for large structures and a power law similar to the in-plane velocities at small scales. The motions are highly anisotropic at large scales, with in-plane velocities being much more important than vertical ones. In contrast, at small scales, the motions become more isotropic.
Penetration at high-z of the Greenberg "yellow stuff": Eyes to the Future with NGST
David L. Block,Ivanio Puerari,Marianne Takamiya,Robert G. Abraham
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: Quantitative morphological dust-penetrated templates for galaxies in our Local Universe may also serve as excellent templates for galaxies at high-z, because of partial/total decouplings expected between gaseous and stellar disks. NGC 922 is an optical irregular, which bears a striking resemblance to objects such as HDF2-86 (z=0.749) in the HDF north (Block et al. 2001). Its gaseous and stellar disk fully decouples; its stellar disk even presents modulation of spiral arms, usually only found in grand design spiral galaxies such as M81. Spiral galaxies in our Local Universe appear to be open systems, that are still forming and accreting mass, doubling their disk masses every 10 billion years (Block et al. 2002; Bournaud & Combes 2002). Likewise, galaxies at high-z may also be open systems, accreting mass, but herein NGST will provide pivotal answers. In this paper, we simulate the appearance of spiral galaxies (2--5" in angular diameter) with a class 6m Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) in their dust penetrated restframe K' (2.1um) regime at redshifts of 0.7 and 1.2. Pitch angles, robustly derived from their Fourier spectra, remain unchanged from the present to when the Universe was roughly one half its present age. Furthermore, a ubiquity of low m (m=1 or m=2) spiral wavelets or modes is maintained in restframe K' images at z=0.7 and z=1.2, fully consistent with K' morphologies for spiral galaxies at z~0 in our local Universe. This paper is dedicated to the memory of J. Mayo Greenberg, whose final research delved into dust at high-z. Nominations for the 2004 Greenberg lecture are invited.
A new method to estimate local pitch angles in spiral galaxies: Application to spiral arms and feathers in M81 and M51
Ivanio Puerari,Bruce G. Elmegreen,David L. Block
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/148/6/133
Abstract: We examine $8\mu$m IRAC images of the grand design two-arm spiral galaxies M81 and M51 using a new method whereby pitch angles are locally determined as a function of scale and position, in contrast to traditional Fourier transform spectral analyses which fit to average pitch angles for whole galaxies. The new analysis is based on a correlation between pieces of a galaxy in circular windows of $(\ln R, \theta)$ space and logarithmic spirals with various pitch angles. The diameter of the windows is varied to study different scales. The result is a best-fit pitch angle to the spiral structure as a function of position and scale, or a distribution function of pitch angles as a function of scale for a given galactic region or area. We apply the method to determine the distribution of pitch angles in the arm and interarm regions of these two galaxies. In the arms, the method reproduces the known pitch angles for the main spirals on a large scale, but also shows higher pitch angles on smaller scales resulting from dust feathers. For the interarms, there is a broad distribution of pitch angles representing the continuation and evolution of the spiral arm feathers as the flow moves into the interarm regions. Our method shows a multiplicity of spiral structures on different scales, as expected from gas flow processes in a gravitating, turbulent and shearing interstellar medium. We also present results for M81 using classical 1D and 2D Fourier transforms, together with a new correlation method, which shows good agreement with conventional 2D Fourier transforms.
David Block
Chungará (Arica) - Revista de Antropología Chilena , 2010,
Gravitational torques in spiral galaxies: gas accretion as a driving mechanism of galactic evolution
David L. Block,Frederic Bournaud,Francoise Combes,Ivanio Puerari,Ron Buta
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021379
Abstract: The distribution of gravitational torques and bar strengths in the local Universe is derived from a detailed study of 163 galaxies observed in the near-infrared. The results are compared with numerical models for spiral galaxy evolution. It is found that the observed distribution of torques can be accounted for only with external accretion of gas onto spiral disks. Accretion is responsible for bar renewal - after the dissolution of primordial bars - as well as the maintenance of spiral structures. Models of isolated, non-accreting galaxies are ruled out. Moderate accretion rates do not explain the observational results: it is shown that galactic disks should double their mass in less than the Hubble time. The best fit is obtained if spiral galaxies are open systems, still forming today by continuous gas accretion, doubling their mass every 10 billion years.
The detection of spiral arm modulation in the stellar disk of an optically flocculent and an optically grand design galaxy
Ivanio Puerari,David L. Block,Bruce G. Elmegreen,Jay A. Frogel,Paul B. Eskridge
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Two dimensional Fourier spectra of near-infrared images of galaxies provide a powerful diagnostic tool for the detection of spiral arm modulation in stellar disks. Spiral arm modulation may be understood in terms of interference patterns of outgoing and incoming density wave packets or modes. The brightness along a spiral arm will be increased where two wave crests meet and constructively interfere, but will be decreased where a wave crest and a wave trough destructively interfere. Spiral arm modulation has hitherto only been detected in grand design spirals (such as Messier 81). Spiral arm amplitude variations have the potential to become a powerful constraint for the study of galactic dynamics. We illustrate our method in two galaxies: NGC 4062 and NGC 5248. In both cases, we have detected trailing and leading m=2 waves with similar pitch angles. This suggests that the amplification mechanism is the WASER type II. In this mechanism, the bulge region reflects (rather than refracts) incoming waves with no change of pitch angle, but only a change of their sense of winding. The ratio between the amplitudes of the leading and the trailing waves is about 0.5 in both cases, wherein the higher amplitude is consistently assigned to the trailing (as opposed to leading) mode. The results are particularly significant because NGC 5248 is an optically grand design galaxy, whereas NGC 4062 is optically flocculent. NGC 4062 represents the very first detection of spiral arm modulation in the stellar disk of an optically flocculent galaxy.
The detection of spiral arm modulation in the mass distribution of an optically flocculent galaxy
Ivanio Puerari,David L. Block,Bruce G. Elmegreen,Jay A. Frogel,Paul B. Eskridge
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Spiral arm modulation in NGC 4062 (an optical flocculent) is detected for the first time; the Fourier spectra of NGC 4062 and NGC 5248 (a classic grand design in optical images) are almost identical.
ISM properties in hydrodynamic galaxy simulations: Turbulence cascades, cloud formation, role of gravity and feedback
Frederic Bournaud,Bruce G. Elmegreen,Romain Teyssier,David L. Block,Ivanio Puerari
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17370.x
Abstract: We study the properties of ISM substructure and turbulence in hydrodynamic (AMR) galaxy simulations with resolutions up to 0.8 pc and 5x10^3 Msun. We analyse the power spectrum of the density distribution, and various components of the velocity field. We show that the disk thickness is about the average Jeans scale length, and is mainly regulated by gravitational instabilities. From this scale of energy injection, a turbulence cascade towards small-scale is observed, with almost isotropic small-scale motions. On scales larger than the disk thickness, density waves are observed, but there is also a full range of substructures with chaotic and strongly non-isotropic gas velocity dispersions. The power spectrum of vorticity in an LMC-sized model suggests that an inverse cascade of turbulence might be present, although energy input over a wide range of scales in the coupled gaseous+stellar fluid could also explain this quasi-2D regime on scales larger than the disk scale height. Similar regimes of gas turbulence are also found in massive high-redshift disks with high gas fractions. Disk properties and ISM turbulence appear to be mainly regulated by gravitational processes, both on large scales and inside dense clouds. Star formation feedback is however essential to maintain the ISM in a steady state by balancing a systematic gas dissipation into dense and small clumps. Our galaxy simulations employ a thermal model based on a barotropic Equation of State (EoS) aimed at modelling the equilibrium of gas between various heating and cooling processes. Denser gas is typically colder in this approach, which is shown to correctly reproduce the density structures of a star-forming, turbulent, unstable and cloudy ISM down to scales of a few parsecs.
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