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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 54137 matches for " David Kennedy "
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Talking Globally
David Kennedy
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 2006,
Abstract: Talking Globally is an annotated transcript of a discussion conducted by myself in a fifth grade classroom in a public school in an affluent suburban town in the northeast U.S. The stimulus for the discussion was a brief text, taken from Kofi Anan’s We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century, which offers a brief, vivid statistical picture of the planetary distribution of resources. In response, the students generated 14 questions, which ranged across a broad variety of topics, including the national debt, US weapons development and production, the war in Iraq, and the relationship of both of those to US policies towards poorer nations. Other themes are raised, considered, left, and revisited, in a process of recursion—of moving forward and then circling back to pick up earlier issues and positions. The claim that the US government is irrational is one of these—a claim exacerbated by the fact that this conversation took place during a period of intense, emergent criticism of the US war in Iraq. The broad empirical claims which are offered—the idea, for example, of the kind and status of the national debt—are made up of relatively isolated “bytes” of information, which are woven abductively into a larger speculative picture. But there are also broadly grasped principles—gleaned by that reflexive intelligence which intuitively synthesizes information from the media, from school and from conversations with elders— which allow certain participants to present accounts of how things are which make up in imagination and general understanding what they lack in detail.
Thinking for Oneself and with Others
David Kennedy
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 2000,
Abstract: The most distinctive feature of the theory and practice of community of philosophical inquiry (CPI), which at first glance appears contradictory, is how it promotes both communal,intersubjective meaning and thinking for oneself. Typically we think of the two as, if not opposed, then not particularly related. Thinking for oneself is usually associated with 18th century Western Enlightenment - the automatic problematization of collectively held beliefs -skepticism, and individualism. Community is usually associated with the affirmation of collectively held beliefs and assumptions, and withthe necessary sacrifice of individual opinion for a greater good.
An antibody present in everybody that attacks malaria infected erythrocytes  [PDF]
James Kennedy
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.67A1001
Abstract: These malaria targeting antibodies are band 3 antibodies and they recognize a special configuration of a molecule called band 3 that is present on erythrocytes. The special band 3 configuration is present on the surface of senescent erythrocytes, malaria infected erythrocytes, the erythrocytes of certain hemoglobinnopathies such as sickle cell disease and on the erythrocytes of some metabolic disorders such as G6PD. Note that these hemoglobinopathies and metabolic disorders all aid in the survival of falciparum malaria to such an extent that their incidence is increased in falciparum endemic areas [1-3]. Though there are many adhesive molecules involved in the pathology of falciparum malaria and sickle cell anemia, the focus here is on the band 3 molecules.
Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation of Na/K-ATPase Regulates Fibrosis and Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling
Jiang Liu,David J. Kennedy,Yanling Yan,Joseph I. Shapiro
International Journal of Nephrology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/381320
Abstract: The Na/K-ATPase is the primary force regulating renal sodium handling and plays a key role in both ion homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Recently, cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling has been shown to regulate fibrosis, renal proximal tubule (RPT) sodium reabsorption, and experimental Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension in response to a high-salt diet. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important modulator of nephron ion transport. As there is limited knowledge regarding the role of ROS-mediated fibrosis and RPT sodium reabsorption through the Na/K-ATPase, the focus of this review is to examine the possible role of ROS in the regulation of Na/K-ATPase activity, its signaling, fibrosis, and RPT sodium reabsorption. 1. Introduction According to the American Heart Association (AHA), over 70 million people in the United States aged 20 and older have high blood pressure (BP). The cause of 90–95 percent of the cases of high BP is unknown, yet in the last decade the associated morbidity and mortality from high BP has increased precipitously. In the 2008 AHA Scientific Statement [1], excessive dietary salt intake is listed as one of the major lifestyle factors which significantly contributes to the development of hypertension and tends to be more pronounced in typical salt-sensitive patients. Modest dietary salt restriction and diuretic therapy, therefore, are recommended for treatment of resistant hypertension, especially in the salt-sensitive subgroup [1, 2]. Renal sodium handling is a key determinant of long-term BP regulation [3]. The relationship between dietary sodium, salt sensitivity, and BP has been established on an epidemiological and clinical basis. It is estimated that hypertension affects 25% to 35% of the world population aged 18 and older [4], and more hypertensive subjects (~50%) are significantly salt sensitive than normotensive subjects (~25%) [5]. In the DASH-Sodium clinical trial, BP reduction was correlated with sodium restriction in the salt-sensitive subjects regardless of diet [6]. Interestingly, animal renal cross-transplantation experiments [7–10] and studies of human renal transplantation [11] demonstrate that BP levels “travel with the donor’s kidney,” providing compelling evidence for the role of renal function in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In clinical and experimental models, renal proximal tubule (RPT) sodium handling accounts for over 60% reabsorption of filtered sodium and is an independent determinant of BP response to salt intake, playing a critical role in the pathogenesis of
Integration across Time Determines Path Deviation Discrimination for Moving Objects
David Whitaker, Dennis M. Levi, Graeme J. Kennedy
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001930
Abstract: Background Human vision is vital in determining our interaction with the outside world. In this study we characterize our ability to judge changes in the direction of motion of objects–a common task which can allow us either to intercept moving objects, or else avoid them if they pose a threat. Methodology/Principal Findings Observers were presented with objects which moved across a computer monitor on a linear path until the midline, at which point they changed their direction of motion, and observers were required to judge the direction of change. In keeping with the variety of objects we encounter in the real world, we varied characteristics of the moving stimuli such as velocity, extent of motion path and the object size. Furthermore, we compared performance for moving objects with the ability of observers to detect a deviation in a line which formed the static trace of the motion path, since it has been suggested that a form of static memory trace may form the basis for these types of judgment. The static line judgments were well described by a ‘scale invariant’ model in which any two stimuli which possess the same two-dimensional geometry (length/width) result in the same level of performance. Performance for the moving objects was entirely different. Irrespective of the path length, object size or velocity of motion, path deviation thresholds depended simply upon the duration of the motion path in seconds. Conclusions/Significance Human vision has long been known to integrate information across space in order to solve spatial tasks such as judgment of orientation or position. Here we demonstrate an intriguing mechanism which integrates direction information across time in order to optimize the judgment of path deviation for moving objects.
Data sharing and publishing in the field of neuroimaging
Janis L Breeze, Jean-Baptiste Poline, David N Kennedy
GigaScience , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2047-217x-1-9
Abstract: One crucial issue is how producers of shared data can and should be acknowledged and how this important component of science will benefit individuals in their academic careers. While we encourage the field to make use of these opportunities for data publishing, it is critical that standards for metadata, provenance, and other descriptors are used. This commentary outlines the efforts of the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing to coordinate and establish such standards, as well as potential ways forward to relieve the issues that researchers who produce these massive, reusable community resources face when making the data rapidly and freely available to the public. Both the technical and human aspects of data sharing must be addressed if we are to go forward.With the worldwide push for more open science and data sharing [1], it is an ideal time to consider the current state of data sharing in neuroscience, and in particular neuroimaging research. A huge amount of neuroimaging data has been acquired around the world; a recent literature search on PubMed led to an estimate of 12 000 datasets or 144 000 scans (around 55 petabytes of data) over the past 10?years, but only a few percent of such data is available in public repositories. Over the past two years, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (http://www.incf.org webcite) has investigated barriers to data sharing through task force working groups and public workshops, and has identified a number of roadblocks, many of which are readily addressable, that impede researchers from both sharing and making use of existing shared data. These include a lack of simple tools for finding, uploading, and downloading shared data; uncertainty about how to best organize and prepare data for sharing, and concerns about data attribution. Many researchers are also wary of data sharing because of confusion institutional human research subject protection and the
Working hours, work-life conflict and health in precarious and "permanent" employment
Bohle,Philip; Quinlan,Michael; Kennedy,David; Williamson,Ann;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102004000700004
Abstract: objective: the expansion of precarious employment in oecd countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. this paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. methods: thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. the participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary) employees. they ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. results: marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. conclusions:this study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. in the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.
Meta-metallation of N,N-dimethylaniline: Contrasting direct sodium-mediated zincation with indirect sodiation-dialkylzinc co-complexation
David R. Armstrong,Liam Balloch,Eva Hevia,Alan R. Kennedy
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2011, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.7.144
Abstract: Previously we reported that direct zincation of N,N-dimethylaniline by the mixed-metal zincate reagent 1 ((TMEDA)Na(TMP)(t-Bu)Zn(t-Bu)) surprisingly led to meta-metallation (zincation) of the aniline, as manifested in the crystalline complex 2 ((TMEDA)Na(TMP)(m-C6H4-NMe2)Zn(t-Bu)), and that iodination of these isolated crystals produced the meta-isomer N,N-dimethyl-3-iodoaniline quantitatively. Completing the study here we find that treating the reaction solution with iodine produces a 72% conversion and results in a mixture of regioisomers of N,N-dimethyliodoaniline, with the meta-isomer still the major product (ortho:meta:para ratio, 6:73:21), as determined by NMR. In contrast to this bimetallic method, sodiation of N,N-dimethylaniline with n-BuNa produced the dimeric, ortho-sodiated complex 3 (((TMEDA)Na(o-C6H4-NMe2))2), as characterised by X-ray crystallography and NMR. No regioisomers were observed in the reaction solution. Introducing t-Bu2Zn to this reaction solution afforded a cocrystalline product in the solid-state, composed of the bis-anilide 4 ((TMEDA)Na(o-C6H4-NMe2)2Zn(t-Bu)) and the Me2N–C cleavage product 5 ({(TMEDA)2Na}+{(t-Bu2Zn)2(μ-NMe2)} ), which was characterised by X-ray crystallography. NMR studies of the reaction mixture that produces 4 and 5 revealed one additional species, but the mixture as a whole contained only ortho-species and a trace amount of para-species as established by iodine quenching. In an indirect variation of the bimetallic reaction, TMP(H) was added at room temperature to the reaction mixture that afforded 4 and 5. This gave the crystalline product 6 ((TMEDA)Na(TMP)(o-C6H4-NMe2)Zn(t-Bu)), the ortho-isomer of the meta-complex 2, as determined from X-ray crystallographic and NMR data. Monitoring the regioselectivity of the reaction by iodination revealed a 16.6:1.6:1.0 ortho:meta:para ratio. Interestingly, when the TMP(H) containing solution was heated under reflux for 18 hours more meta-isomer was produced (corresponding ratio 3.7:4.2:1.0). It is likely that this change has its origin in a retro reaction that produces the original base 1 as an intermediate. Theoretical calculations at the DFT level using the B3LYP method and the 6-311G** basis set were used to probe the energetics of both monometallic and bimetallic systems. In accord with the experimental results, it was found that ortho-metallation was favoured by sodiation; whereas meta- (closely followed by para-) metallation was favoured by direct sodium-mediated zincation.
Redetermination of cis-diaquadiglycolatozinc(II)
Paul Kennedy,Neferterneken Francis,David Rovnyak,Margaret E. Kastner
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536808039585
Abstract: The title complex, [Zn(C2H3O3)2(H2O)2], was prepared and the crystal structure determined as part of a 67Zn solid state nuclear magnetic resonance study. In the title complex, the Zn atom has a disorted octahedral coordination comprising two bidentate glycolate ligands and two water molecules. The water molecules are cis to each other; one is trans to a carboxylate O atom and the other trans to an alcohol O atom. The crystal structure has an extensive O—H...O hydrogen-bond network.
catena-Poly[[(nitrito-κ2O,O′)silver(I)]-μ-1,2-bis[1-(pyridin-4-yl)ethylidene]hydrazine-κ2N:N′]
Alan R. Kennedy,Maurice O. Okoth,David Walsh
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811028546
Abstract: The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ag(NO2)(C14H14N4)]n, contains half of the repeating formula unit (Z′ = 1/2). The AgI ion lies on a twofold rotation axis. The primary structure consists of a one-dimensional coordination polymer formed by the AgI ions and the bipyridyl azine ligand in which there is an inversion center at the mid-point of the N—N bond. The nitrite anion interacts with the AgI ion through a chelating μ2 interaction involving both O atoms. In the crystal, the coordination chains are parallel and interact through Ag...π [3.220 (2) ] and π–π [3.489 (3) ] interactions.
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