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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 52940 matches for " David Grattan "
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Tom Strang,David Grattan
E-Preservation Science , 2009,
Abstract: Since Sebera published his paper on Isoperms in 1994,much has changed. A significant amount of data has accumulatedon the mechanism of paper degradation, more activationenergies have been determined and there has been aconvergence of values. Assumptions about the relationshipbetween the relative humidity and the moisture content orthe rate of degradation of paper need no longer be made asnear complete theoretical descriptions are available. Themethod of modelling has therefore been revised and nowincorporates the Arrhenius equation and the moisture sorptionisotherm, which is best modelled by the Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) equation. This new method willallow direct experimental verification of the isoperm forcellulosic materials in museum collections. As the cost ofenergy usage for preser vation has now become an importantquestion, it is particularly critical to have access tomore accurate isoperms.
Identification of a truncated splice variant of IL-18 receptor alpha in the human and rat, with evidence of wider evolutionary conservation
Chris S. Booker,David R. Grattan
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.560
Abstract: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which stimulates activation of the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) pathway via interaction with the IL-18 receptor. The receptor itself is formed from a dimer of two subunits, with the ligand-binding IL-18Rα subunit being encoded by the IL18R1 gene. A splice variant of murine IL18r1, which has been previously described, is formed by transcription of an unspliced intron (forming a ‘type II’ IL18r1 transcript) and is predicted to encode a receptor with a truncated intracellular domain lacking the capacity to generate downstream signalling. In order to examine the relevance of this finding to human IL-18 function, we assessed the presence of a homologous transcript by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the human and rat as another common laboratory animal. We present evidence for type II IL18R1 transcripts in both species. While the mouse and rat transcripts are predicted to encode a truncated receptor with a novel 5 amino acid C-terminal domain, the human sequence is predicted to encode a truncated protein with a novel 22 amino acid sequence bearing resemblance to the ‘Box 1’ motif of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, in a similar fashion to the inhibitory interleukin-1 receptor 2. Given that transcripts from these three species are all formed by inclusion of homologous unspliced intronic regions, an analysis of homologous introns across a wider array of 33 species with available IL18R1 gene records was performed, which suggests similar transcripts may encode truncated type II IL-18Rα subunits in other species. This splice variant may represent a conserved evolutionary mechanism for regulating IL-18 activity.
Reviewer acknowledgement 2012
Clive Grattan
Clinical and Translational Allergy , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2045-7022-3-4
Abstract: Werner AbererAustriaIoana AgacheRomaniaIgnacio AnsoteguiSpainRiccardo AseroItalyMalin AxelssonSwedenSami BahnaUnited States of AmericaJoan BartraSpainSevim BavbekTurkeyMehmet BayramTurkeyBlanca Bazan-PerkinsMexicoCarlos BlancoSpainSergio BoniniItalyJean BousquetFranceHelen A BroughUnited KingdomMoises A CalderonUnited KingdomTomás ChivatoSpainCemal CingiTurkeyLuis DelgadoPortugalPascal DemolyFranceThomas EiweggerAustriaEsben EllerDenmarkWytske FokkensNetherlandsGabriele GadermaierAustriaRoy Gerth van WijkNetherlandsPhilippe GevaertBelgiumM Hazel GowlandUnited KingdomPeter HellingsBelgiumKarin Hoffmann-SommergruberAustriaThomas HolzhauserGermanyBogdan JakielaPolandTuomas JarttiFinlandOmer KalayciTurkeyAllen KaplanUnited States of AmericaRebecca KnibbUnited KingdomGeorge KonstantinouUnited States of AmericaMarcin KurowskiPolandAntti LauermaFinlandOlga LuengoSpainParaskevi MagginaGreeceSoili M?kinen-KiljunenFinlandNadine MarroucheUnited KingdomGiovanni MelioliItalyJoaquim MullolSpainRobert NivenUnited KingdomPedro OjedaSpainOliver PfaarGermanyRoland E PomsAustriaTodor A PopovBulgariaRisto RenkonenFinlandClaudio RhynerSwitzerlandGraham RobertsUnited KingdomFranziska RueffGermanyAnna Sala-CunillSpainPeter Schmid-GrendelmeierSwitzerlandSvetlana SergejevaEstoniaMasahiro ShojiJapanChrysanthi SkevakiGreeceChristian TaubeNetherlandsSanna Toppila-SalmiFinlandMassimo TriggianiItalyJohann C VirchowSwitzerlandCornelis van DrunenNetherlandsCarina VenterUnited KingdomBarbara YawnUnited States of America
Plant Sterols as Anticancer Nutrients: Evidence for Their Role in Breast Cancer
Bruce J. Grattan
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5020359
Abstract: While many factors are involved in the etiology of cancer, it has been clearly established that diet significantly impacts one’s risk for this disease. More recently, specific food components have been identified which are uniquely beneficial in mitigating the risk of specific cancer subtypes. Plant sterols are well known for their effects on blood cholesterol levels, however research into their potential role in mitigating cancer risk remains in its infancy. As outlined in this review, the cholesterol modulating actions of plant sterols may overlap with their anti-cancer actions. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women and there remains a need for effective adjuvant therapies for this disease, for which plant sterols may play a distinctive role.
Zinc and Cancer: Implications for LIV-1 in Breast Cancer
Bruce J. Grattan,Hedley C. Freake
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4070648
Abstract: Zinc is a trace mineral which is vital for the functioning of numerous cellular processes, is critical for growth, and may play an important role in cancer etiology and outcome. The intracellular levels of this mineral are regulated through the coordinated expression of zinc transporters, which modulate both zinc influx as well as efflux. LIV-1 (ZIP6) was first described in 1988 as an estrogen regulated gene with later work suggesting a role for this transporter in cancer growth and metastasis. Despite evidence of its potential utility as a target gene for cancer prognosis and treatment, LIV-1 has received relatively little attention, with only three prior reviews being published on this topic. Herein, the physiological effects of zinc are reviewed in light of this mineral’s role in cancer growth with specific attention being given to LIV-1 and the potential importance of this transporter to breast cancer etiology.
Evaluating the impact of Internet provision on students' information-gathering strategies
Julia Meek,Marie Garnett,John Grattan
Research in Learning Technology , 1998, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v6i1.10987
Abstract: Universities may invest millions of pounds in the provision of computer hardware without ever seriously considering the educational results such investment may deliver. Equally, academics may be committed to the use of IT in teaching and learning because it is expected of them (cf. Dearing, 1997), and rarely give serious consideration to the impact which the effective use of IT may have on student learning (Lauillard, 1993). The use of the WWW to deliver material in support of university teaching is still in its infancy, yet already two distinct approaches to its use can be seen. The first approach uses the WWW passively to deliver existing lecture notes in a technologically impressive and, perhaps more importantly, highly convenient fashion. The second approach attempts to shape the material delivered to maximize the teaching and learning potential of the WWW and to develop students' skills in the use of the medium. But which approach works more effectively? And how does one balance the needs of an academic community pressured by the Research Assessment Exercise with the need to develop effective teaching and learning strategies which maximize the potential of IT for the academic community, for the students and for their future employers?
Addressing Weight Loss Recidivism: A Clinical Focus on Metabolic Rate and the Psychological Aspects of Obesity
Bruce J. Grattan,Josephine Connolly-Schoonen
ISRN Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/567530
Physical Activity Promotion in the Preschool Years: A Critical Period to Intervene
Gary S. Goldfield,Alysha Harvey,Kimberly Grattan,Kristi B. Adamo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9041326
Abstract: The primary aim of this paper is to provide a rationale for the necessity of intervening with a physical activity intervention in the preschool years and why the daycare environment is amenable to such intervention. We also review the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity in the preschool population and the impact that these lifestyle behaviours and conditions have on the health of preschool aged children, as secondary objectives. Moreover we discuss implications for intervention and research using a “lessons learned” model based on our research team’s experience of conducting a randomized controlled trial aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour and improving motor skill development and body composition in preschoolers. Lastly, we make conclusions based on the literature and highlight issues and directions that need to be addressed in future research in order to maximize health promotion and chronic disease prevention in the pediatric population.
Addressing Weight Loss Recidivism: A Clinical Focus on Metabolic Rate and the Psychological Aspects of Obesity
Bruce J. Grattan Jr.,Josephine Connolly-Schoonen
ISRN Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/567530
Abstract: Obesity in the United States has reached epidemic proportions and has become an unprecedented public health burden. This paper returns to the evidence for metabolic rate set points and emphasizes the clinical importance of addressing changes in metabolic rate throughout the weight loss process. In addition to the importance of clinically attending to the modulation of metabolic rate, the psychological aspects of obesity are addressed as part of the need to holistically treat obesity. 1. Introduction Worldwide, approximately 310 million people are overweight or obese [1]. In the United States nearly two-thirds of the population is categorized as overweight or obese [2], with approximately 5% of the population meeting the criteria for morbid obesity [3]. Obesity accounts for an estimated 400,000 deaths per year, making its effect on mortality second only to tobacco use [4]. Current estimates even suggest a reduction in an obese individual’s expected lifespan upwards of 22% [5]. Likewise, total health care costs related to obesity and comorbidities have been estimated to be 25–30% greater for obese individuals when compared with their normal weight counterparts [6, 7]. Amid such alarming statistics with extensions to both health outcomes as well as economics, in 2000, the World Health Organization proclaimed obesity to be the single greatest threat to the health of Westernized nations [8]. Given current estimates showing that 53% of Americans are currently attempting to lose weight and an additional 25% are battling weight maintenance [9], the need for appropriate dietary recommendations for both endeavors is prescient. Weight loss efforts can be considered through two lenses; initial weight loss and the maintenance of a reduced body weight. While initial weight reduction is challenging, the maintenance of such weight loss is seen as even more problematic. Weight lost recidivism is exemplified in a study by Sarlio-L?hteenkorva et al. who followed a cohort of 911 subjects. Only 6% maintained weight loss of at least 5% after 6 years [10]. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed, with estimates showing that nearly one-third of weight loss is regained in the year following a weight loss intervention [11]. These finding suggest a biological drive toward weight regain and implicate the pattern of initial weight loss as a modulating factor. 2. Effects of Diet on Metabolic Rate The totality of energy expenditure is comprised of three main parameters: physical activity, the thermic effect of food (TEF), and resting metabolic rate or RMR [12]. Physical activity
A positive serum basophil histamine release assay is a marker for ciclosporin-responsiveness in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria
Kamran Iqbal, Kapil Bhargava, Per Skov, Sidsel Falkencrone, Clive EH Grattan
Clinical and Translational Allergy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2045-7022-2-19
Abstract: Functional factors including histamine-releasing autoantibodies have been identified by the BHRA in the sera of 20–30% of patients with CSU [1-3]. CSU patients with a positive BHRA also have a higher incidence of thyroid antibodies than those without [4]. A double-blind placebo controlled study of ciclosporin for chronic idiopathic urticaria showed that more patients with a positive BHRA responded to ciclosporin than those with a negative BHRA [5] but this observation is not widely known. If confirmed, the BHRA could be used as a biomarker to predict a good response to treatment with ciclosporin and provide additional justification for using this third-line immunosuppressive agent in CSU patients with antihistamine-unresponsive disease.The electronic case records of CSU patients attending a specialist Urticaria Clinic at St John’s Institute of Dermatology, London, who had a BHRA performed on their sera by RefLab, Copenhagen (HR-Urtikaria Test?) [6] between November 2004 and March 2011 were reviewed retrospectively by one of the authors to identify those with H1 antihistamine-unresponsive CSU treated with ciclosporin and their response to it. None of the patients had an autologous serum skin test. The usual starting dose of ciclosporin was 4 mg/kg/d and the usual duration of treatment was between 3 and 4 months. Patients with other patterns of chronic urticaria including inducible urticarias (physical, cholinergic and other types), angio-oedema without weals and urticarial vasculitis were excluded. The global response to ciclosporin was designated as complete, partial or none based on the assessment made by their attending clinician. The time to respond to ciclosporin was also noted when this information could be gleaned from the notes. The time to onset of a complete or partial response was categorised as immediate (within days), early (within a month), late (from 1-3 months) and delayed (beyond 3 months). An increase in autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase, thyrogl
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