Abstract:
In this paper we investigate the behavior of three-dimensional homogeneous solutions of the cross curvature flow using Riemannian groupoids. The Riemannian groupoid technique, introduced by John Lott, allows us to investigate the long term behavior of collapsing solutions of the flow, producing soliton solutions in the limit. We also review Lott's results on the long term behavior of three-dimensional homogeneous solutions of Ricci flow, demonstrating the coordinates we choose and reviewing the groupoid technique. We find cross curvature soliton metrics on Sol and Nil, and show that the cross curvature flow of SL(2,R) limits to Sol.

Abstract:
A piecewise flat manifold is a triangulated manifold given a geometry by specifying edge lengths (lengths of 1-simplices) and specifying that all simplices are Euclidean. We consider the variation of angles of piecewise flat manifolds as the geometry varies in a particular way, which we call a conformal variation. This variation generalizes variations within the class of circles with fixed intersection angles (such as circle packings) as well as other formulations of conformal variation of piecewise flat manifolds previously suggested. We describe the angle derivatives of the angles in two and three dimensional piecewise flat manifolds, giving rise to formulas for the derivatives of curvatures. The formulas for derivatives of curvature resemble the formulas for the change of scalar curvature under a conformal variation of Riemannian metric. They allow us to explicitly describe the variation of certain curvature functionals, including Regge's formulation of the Einstein-Hilbert functional (total scalar curvature), and to consider convexity of these functionals. They also allow us to prove rigidity theorems for certain analogues of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds in the piecewise flat setting.

Abstract:
Thurston's circle packing approximation of the Riemann Mapping (proven to give the Riemann Mapping in the limit by Rodin-Sullivan) is largely based on the theorem that any topological disk with a circle packing metric can be deformed into a circle packing metric in the disk with boundary circles internally tangent to the circle. The main proofs of the uniformization use hyperbolic volumes (Andreev) or hyperbolic circle packings (by Beardon and Stephenson). We reformulate these problems into a Euclidean context, which allows more general discrete conformal structures and boundary conditions. The main idea is to replace the disk with a double covered disk with one side forced to be a circle and the other forced to have interior curvature zero. The entire problem is reduced to finding a zero curvature structure. We also show that these curvatures arise naturally as curvature measures on generalized manifolds (manifolds with multiplicity) that extend the usual discrete Lipschitz-Killing curvatures on surfaces.

Abstract:
Consider a sequence of pointed n-dimensional complete Riemannian manifolds {(M_i,g_i(t), O_i)} such that t in [0,T] are solutions to the Ricci flow and g_i(t) have uniformly bounded curvatures and derivatives of curvatures. Richard Hamilton showed that if the initial injectivity radii are uniformly bounded below then there is a subsequence which converges to an n-dimensional solution to the Ricci flow. We prove a generalization of this theorem where the initial metrics may collapse. Without injectivity radius bounds we must allow for convergence in the Gromov-Hausdorff sense to a space which is not a manifold but only a metric space. We then look at the local geometry of the limit to understand how it relates to the Ricci flow.

Abstract:
This article studies a discrete geometric structure on triangulated manifolds and an associated curvature flow (combinatorial Yamabe flow). The associated evolution of curvature appears to be like a heat equation on graphs, but it can be shown to not satisfy the maximum principle. The notion of a parabolic-like operator is introduced as an operator which satisfies the maximum principle, but may not be parabolic in the usual sense of operators on graphs. A maximum principle is derived for the curvature of combinatorial Yamabe flow under certain assumptions on the triangulation, and hence the heat operator is shown to be parabolic-like. The maximum principle then allows a characterization of the curvature as well was a proof of long term existence of the flow.

Abstract:
A combinatorial version of Yamabe flow is presented based on Euclidean triangulations coming from sphere packings. The evolution of curvature is then derived and shown to satisfy a heat equation. The Laplacian in the heat equation is shown to be a geometric analogue of the Laplacian of Riemannian geometry, although the maximum principle need not hold. It is then shown that if the flow is nonsingular, the flow converges to a constant curvature metric.

Abstract:
This paper uses the technology of weighted and regular triangulations to study discrete versions of the Laplacian on piecewise Euclidean manifolds. Regular triangulations are studied in some detail, including flip algorithms. The Laplacian is then studied as an operator on functions of the vertices as a generalized weighted Laplacian on graphs.

Abstract:
A piecewise constant curvature manifold is a triangulated manifold that is assigned a geometry by specifying lengths of edges and stipulating that for a chosen background geometry (Euclidean, hyperbolic, or spherical), each simplex has an isometric embedding into the background geometry with the chosen edge lengths. Additional structure is defined either by giving a geometric structure to the Poincare dual of the triangulation or by assigning a discrete metric, a way of assigning length to oriented edges. This notion leads to a notion of discrete conformal structure, generalizing the discrete conformal structures based on circle packings and their generalizations studied by Thurston and others. We define and analyze conformal variations of piecewise constant curvature 2-manifolds, giving particular attention to the variation of angles. We give formulas for the derivatives of angles in each background geometry, which yield formulas for the derivatives of curvatures. Our formulas allow us to identify particular curvature functionals associated with conformal variations. Finally, we provide a complete classification of discrete conformal structures in each of the background geometries.

Abstract:
The two-loop renormalization group flow is studied via the induced bracket flow on 3D unimodular Lie groups. A number of steady solitons are found. Some of these steady solitons come from maximally symmetric metrics that are steady, shrinking, or expanding solitons under Ricci flow, while others are not obviously related to Ricci flow solitons.

Abstract:
We give a global picture of the Ricci flow on the space of three-dimensional, unimodular, nonabelian metric Lie algebras considered up to isometry and scaling. The Ricci flow is viewed as a two-dimensional dynamical system for the evolution of structure constants of the metric Lie algebra with respect to an evolving orthonormal frame. This system is amenable to direct phase plane analysis, and we find that the fixed points and special trajectories in the phase plane correspond to special metric Lie algebras, including Ricci solitons and special Riemannian submersions. These results are one way to unify the study of Ricci flow on left invariant metrics on three-dimensional, simply-connected, unimodular Lie groups, which had previously been studied by a case-by-case analysis of the different Bianchi classes. In an appendix, we prove a characterization of the space of three-dimensional, unimodular, nonabelian metric Lie algebras modulo isometry and scaling.