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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 56730 matches for " David Bruce "
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The genome of Sinorhizobium meliloti
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20010801-01
Abstract: Galilbert et al. reported that S. meliloti strain 1021 has a tripartite genome; a 3.65 megabase (Mb) chromosome, and 1.35 Mb pSymA and 1.68 Mb pSymB megaplasmids. Further analysis of the genome suggests that all three genetic elements are involved, to a greater or lesser degree, in the establishment and maintenance of the plant-bacterium symbiosis (Science 2001, 293:668-672).They predicted that the genome contains 6,204 protein-coding genes, of which the largest proportion (12.5%) are thought to encode transport system proteins. Regulatory genes occupy 9% of the genome. The three nod genes required for the initiation of the rhizhobium (nodM, nodPQ and nodG) are located on pSymA.Understanding the genome of this bacterium could enable specific genes to be manipulated to increase the yield of alfalfa. It may also enable the bacteria to be altered such that they can be used to infect other non-leguminous species. In addition, as S. meliloti is an a-proteobacterium, understanding its genome could provide important information about plant and animal pathogenic bacterial species such as Agrobacterium and Brucella.
Pollen coat protein gene families
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20010703-01
Abstract: Mayfield et al. identified two distinct clusters of coat proteins: one cluster encoding six lipases and the second a group of six lipid-binding oleosin genes, including the pollination-initiation gene GRP17. Following the identification of these gene clusters they decided to explore how the clusters were distributed in other 'ecotypes' - Arabadopsis strains from disparate geographical locations. They found that although there was variation within the genes themselves, the clusters were conserved across the ecotypes, suggesting a strong evolutionary pressure to maintain the clusters.In addition they compared the pollen coat proteins of Arabidopsis with those of another brassica, broccoli and discovered a large degree of diversity. This could imply that these genes are involved in speciation and species recognition.These findings could have important ramifications. They may enable the manipulation of pollen to enable cross fertilization of species that have so far proved impossible; and it may also make possible alteration of the pollen coat of genetically modified crops so that they are unable to fertilize wild plants.
2003 Gairdner International Awards announced
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030411-02
Abstract: Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck are commended for their work exploring the neurological basis of our perception of the sensory environment "through brilliant technical innovation and creative analysis of neural circuits". The committee also recognized Seiji Ogawa for his use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the non-invasive imaging of the brain that represents a "technological revolution in neuroscience and is being explored in such clinical domains as ageing and pre-surgical mapping."The structural biologist Wayne A. Hendrickson pioneered a novel x-ray diffraction technique that identified CD4, a key molecule in the binding of HIV to their target cells. Ralph M. Steinman discovered dendritic cells - the immune cells that control the process of differentiating between self and non-self. They are both recognized for the insights they have given into fundamental immune responses.The Foundation, established in 1957 by Toronto businessman James Gairdner, first recognized achievement in medical science in 1959. The awards are now among the most prestigious international awards in medical research. Each winner receives $30,000 Cdn. Of the past 264 awardees 59 have gone on to win a Nobel Prize.
2002 Royal Society Fellows
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20020513-01
Abstract: Developmental genetics is well represented among the new Fellows. Allan Bradley, director of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, developed a system for using embryonic stem cells to generate specific alterations in the mouse germline. Philip Ingham works at the University of Sheffield on developmental signaling pathways in Drosophila and zebrafish. He is currently chairman of the British Society for Developmental Biology.Another new fellow, John Kilmartin, has made a significant contribution to the understanding of yeast mitosis. His single-minded dedication to the problem of the yeast spindle has elucidated many aspects of the structure, as well as resulting in widely used reagents such as the 'Kilmartin' monoclonal antibody against tubulin.Hubert Markl, President of the Max Planck Society and an influential figure in European science policy, is among the Foreign Members.
2002 National Academy Fellows
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20020502-01
Abstract: Vernon Ingram at the Biochemistry Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology - sometimes referred to as the 'The Father of Molecular Medicine' for his seminal work in identifying the single amino acid mutation that causes sickle cell anemia - is elected, 53 years after receiving his PhD and 32 years after his election to the Royal Society in London. In contrast, Yale University's Jennifer Doudna, has been elected to the Academy in recognition of her work in elucidating the structure and function of ribozymes and RNA-protein complexes only 13 years on from becoming a PhD.Also elected is Pat Brown from the Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine. It was his team that developed the microarray technology that has enabled meaningful analysis of the vast amounts of information generated by the numerous genome projects. In addition he is a committed proponent of freedom of access to academic research through his involvement with the Public Library of Science (PLoS).Among the list of new foreign associates is Tomoko Ohta at the National Institute of Genetics, Japan. She has spent most of her post-doctoral career at the Institute developing the neutral theory of evolution in conjunction with Motoo Kimuri.The seemingly ubiquitous Craig Venter is also elected this year, just as he leaves Celera, where he drove through the commercial sequencing of primarily his own genome, to rejoin The Institute for Genomic Research.
Parasites bare all
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20011126-02
Abstract: The 2.9 Mb E. cuniculi genome consists of 11 chromosomes with 1,997 potential protein coding sequences tightly packed together with little 'junk' DNA in between. It has long been thought that the microsporidia diverged evolutionarily before the development of mitochondria, as these organelles are absent from the cytoplasm of the parasite. But, with the completion of the genome sequence five proteins classically associated with Fe-S cluster assembly machinery - an essential function of mitochondria - have been identified. It is still unclear if these genes have relocated to a site within the cytoplasm or exist in a residual mitochondrion-derived organelle such as the 'mitosome' recently described in Entamoeba histolytica.Katanika et al. suggest that this work could provide a useful reference in the comparative genomics of microbial eukaryotes. It may be of particular importance in identifying the relative importance of shared genes in the parasites that cause major human diseases such as Plasmodium and Leishamnia.In an accompanying News and Views article, Patrick Keeling of the Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, said, "This is an exciting time for parasitology, and if E. cuniculi is an honest herald, many 'rules' are about to be broken."
A new class of nodule-forming bacteria
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20010622-01
Abstract: Moulin et al. characterized rhizobia from a number of tropical legumes and found that those from the nodules of Aspalatus and Machaerium were phylogenetically distant from known rhizobia (Nature 2001, 411:948-949). Analysis of strain STM678 from the South African legume A. carnosa showed it to be most closely related to the Burkholderia bacteria (~97% identity), a genus within the ?-subclass of Proteobacteria. A subsequent PCR screen of this strain revealed the presence of nodA, nodB and nodC genes encoding the Nod (nodulation) factors that act as signalling molecules in the initiation of the nodules characteristic of legumes.The discovery that Burkholderia bacteria are also involved in rhizobium formation could have important implications environmentally. Some of the genus are capable of breaking down certain organic compounds and could provide a cheap and effective technique for cleaning up contaminated land.So far the rhizobia of less than 10% of the Leguminosae have been characterized. The new results suggest that the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria are a considerably more diverse group than was originally assumed.
The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine 2001
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20011008-02
Abstract: In a sequence of experiments with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 1970-71, Leland Hartwell identified a number of mutations in the genes that control the cell-cycle. Hartwell decided to study yeast cells because they are simpler and easier to manipulate than human cells. At the time, Hartwell recalls, this was "a fairly risky assumption". He identified over one hundred such genes and labelled them cell division control (CDC) genes. Further work led to the identification of the CDC28 gene that controls the process by which cells progress through the G1 phase of the cell-cycle. This gene was consequently called 'start', and it controls a crucial point at which cell proliferation is integrated with extra- and intra-cellular signals.In other studies, Hartwell examined the impact of irradiation on the yeast cells, making another important discovery along the way. He found that cells in which the DNA had been damaged by radiation underwent cell-cycle arrest. This allowed time for the cell to repair the damage before undergoing replication, a concept that he defined as checkpoint and which was subsequently found to ensure the correct order of the different cell-cycle phases. He also showed that early events in the cell-cycle prevented the initiation of events downstream in the pathway. Mutations in checkpoint genes enable late events to occur even if DNA damage hasn't been repaired, a mechanism implicated in the development of many cancers.At about the same time, Sir Paul Nurse began to use the genetic approach to cell-cycle research on another yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. He discovered the gene cdc2 and initially showed that is was responsible for the transition from G2 phase of the cell-cycle to mitosis. Further work showed that cdc2 was homologous to the 'start' gene identified by Hartwell, and in 1987 Nurse isolated the human homologue, which became known as CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1). He then went on to show that CDK activation is dependent on reversi
Structure of a DNA-damage repair protein
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20010810-01
Abstract: In the August 9 Nature, John Walker and colleagues at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York report the structure of the Ku heterodimer, a well known DNA-repair protein, and the nature of it's interaction with the DNA double strands (Nature 2001, 412:607-614).Walker et al. employed X-ray crystallography to observe the Ku-DNA complex and multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction to look at the Ku heterodimer itself. This confirmed that the protein was composed of two subunits - Ku70 and Ku80. Previous studies have shown that both Ku70 and Ku80 knock-outs result in a high frequency of aberrant chromosomal rearrangements.The X-ray crystallography indicated that Ku is a ring-shaped molecule, abundant in the nucleus, that attaches to the end of a DNA strand as soon as a break occurs. The binding site spans two full turns of DNA but encircles only the central three or four base pairs. Ku makes no contact with the bases themselves but binds to the sugar backbone enabling the protein to bind to DNA without the need for high sequence specificity.They also found that the Ku proteins on the ends of the DNA strands bind to each other, forming an extensive structure that 'cradles' the DNA, with a very narrow bridge over the top. This firmly holds one side of the DNA whilst leaving the other essentially completely exposed, thereby facilitating access for the polymerases, nucleases and ligases that repair the broken strand.
2002 Gairdner International Awards announced
David Bruce
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20020424-01
Abstract: The General Genome Citation is broken down into three areas: Maynard Olson, James Watson and Jean Weissenbach are recognized as the "early architects"; Eric Lander, John Sulston, Robert Waterston and Craig Venter are honored for their "seminal contributions to sequencing of human and other genomes"; and the bioinformaticians Philip Green and Michael Waterman receive the award for developing the computational molecular biology tools that were vital for analyzing the enormous amount of data generated by the sequencing projects. "The study of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics will surely lead to major breakthroughs in medicine and health - from the discovery of the genesis of disease to the design and delivery system of new treatments, " said John Dirks, president of the Gairdner Foundation.In addition, James Watson was honored with an International Award of Merit for "His 50 years of unparalleled contributions to biology and medical science, and in particular for his critical international leadership during the creation of the Human Genome Project."The Foundation, established in 1957 by Toronto businessman James Gairdner, first recognized achievement in medical science in 1959. Over the past 42 years, the awards have grown to be one of the most prestigious international awards in medical research. Each winner receives $30,000. Of the past 255 international awardees in a variety of disciplines from genetic research to cancer therapy, 56 have gone on to win a Nobel Prize.
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