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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 53023 matches for " David Blanchon "
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La politique de l’eau en Afrique du Sud : le difficile équilibre entre développement durable et valorisation optimale de la ressource
David Blanchon
Développement Durable et Territoires , 2006,
Abstract: L’objet de cet article est de présenter les difficultés liées à l’adaptation du concept de développement durable en Afrique du Sud. D’une part, à cause des spécificités du mode de mise en valeur des ressources hydriques dans ce pays, fondé sur des transferts d’eau à grande échelle, mais aussi à cause de l’ambigu té même du concept. Notre article montre que, au-delà de l’affichage sous le terme de “ développement durable ”, les politiques de gestion de l’eau mises en uvre depuis 1994 n’ont que provisoirement freiné la construction de barrages et de transfert et ont au contraire accéléré la concurrence entre les territoires. Cela est d au statut ambigu de l’environnement dans ce pays, où le rapport entre protection de la nature, développement économique et justice sociale a été profondément altéré par quarante années d’apartheid. politique de l’eau, gestion de la demande, transferts d’eau inter-bassins, protection de l’environnement, aménagement du territoire, afrique du sudThis paper questions the sustainability of the post-apartheid water policy in South Africa. Even if they were partly successful in the process of taking into account environmental problems and providing basic water services to previously disadvantaged communities, these policies have raised new problems. This paper shows that the implementation of the environmental Reserve and the water demand management policy have paradoxically accelerated the competition between regions for the access to water resources, and only temporarily stopped the building of huge dams and inter-basin transfers. One major reason is the controversial status of the environment in South Africa, deeply disturbed by the apartheid regime, and still politically and socially problematic.
For an external evaluation of MT systems by task-based methods Pour l'évaluation externe des systèmes de TA par des méthodes fondées sur la tache
Hervé Blanchon,Christian Boitet
Traitement Automatique des Langues , 2008,
Abstract: External methods for evaluating MT systems define various measures based on MT results and their usage. While operational systems are mostly evaluated since long by task-based methods, evaluation campaigns of the last years use (parsimoniously) quite expensive subjective methods based on unreliable human judgments, and (for the most part) methods based on reference translations, that are impossible to use during the real usage of a system, less correlated with human judgments when quality increases, and totally unrealistic in that they force to measure progress on fixed corpora, endlessly retranslated, and not on new texts to be translated for real needs. There are also numerous biases introduced by the desire to diminish costs, in particular the usage of parallel corpora in the direction opposed to that of their production, and of monolingual rather than bilingual judges. We prove the above by an analysis of the history of MT evaluation, of the mainstream evaluation methods, and of certain recent evaluation campaigns. We propose to abandon the reference-based methods in external evaluations, and to replace them by strictly task-based methods, while reserving them for internal evaluations.
Traduction automatisée fondée sur le dialogue et documents auto-explicatifs : bilan du projet LIDIA
Hervé Blanchon,Christian Boitet,Ali Choumane
Traitement Automatique des Langues , 2007,
Abstract: We present the work we carried out on the LIDIA project in the framework of dialogue-based machine translation for the monolingual author. Using a multilevel transfer linguistic approach, we have proposed and evaluated a technique to produce interactive disambiguation questions. The components involved in the translation process cooperate within a distributed architecture through a “light” document processing environment. We have also proposed the idea of Self-Explaining Documents. A SED is a document enriched with the answers provided by the author during interactive disambiguation. It gives readers, on demand, explanations about its intended meaning, in order to avoid any misunderstanding due to ambiguities.
Unbound exotic nuclei studied by transfer to the continuum reactions
G. Blanchon,A. Bonaccorso,N. Vinh Mau
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2004.04.106
Abstract: In this paper we show that the theory of transfer reactions from bound to continuum states is well suited to extract structure information from data obtained by performing "spectroscopy in the continuum". The low energy unbound states of nuclei such as $^{10}$Li and $^{5}$He can be analyzed and the neutron-core interaction, necessary to describe the corresponding borromean nuclei $^{11}$Li and $^{6}$He can be determined in a semi-phenomenological way. An application to the study of $^{10}$Li is then discussed and it is shown that the scattering length for s-states at threshold can be obtained from the ratio of experimental and theoretical cross sections. The scattering single particle states of the system n+$^{9}$Li are obtained in a potential model. The corresponding S-matrix is used to calculate the transfer cross section as a function of the neutron continuum energy with respect to $^{9}$Li. Three different reactions are calculated $^{9}Li(d,p)^{10}Li$, $^{9}Li(^{9}Be,^{8}Be)^{10}Li$, $^{9}Li(^{13}C,^{12}C)^{10}Li$, to check the sensitivity of the results to the target used and in particular to the transfer matching conditions. Thus the sensitivity of the structure information extracted from experimental data on the reaction mechanism is assessed.
Prospective study on microscopic potential with Gogny interaction
G. Blanchon,M. Dupuis,H. F. Arellano
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present our current studies and our future plans on microscopic potential based on effective nucleon-nucleon interaction and many-body theory. This framework treats in an unified way nuclear structure and reaction. It offers the opportunity to link the underlying effective interaction to nucleon scattering observables. The more consistently connected to a variety of reaction and structure experimental data the framework will be, the more constrained effective interaction will be. As a proof of concept, we present some recent results for both neutron and proton scattered from spherical target nucleus, namely 40 Ca, using the Gogny D1S interaction. Possible fruitful crosstalks between microscopic potential, phenomenological potential and effective interaction are exposed. We then draw some prospective plans for the forthcoming years including scattering from spherical nuclei experiencing pairing correlations, scattering from axially deformed nuclei, and new effective interaction with reaction constraints.
Should Empyema with or without Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children Be Managed Differently?  [PDF]
Karine Anastaze Stelle, Anne Mornand, Nadia Bajwa, Isabelle Vidal, Mehrak Anooshiravani, Aikaterini Kanavaki, Constance Barazzone Argiroffo, Sylvain Blanchon
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.92014
Abstract: Background: Necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an increasing lung infection mostly associated with pleural empyema. Objectives: We aimed to compare children with empyema with and without concomitant NP, in terms of risk factors, management and outcome. Methods: We retrospectively included children hospitalized between 2005-2014 with empyema to whom a computed tomography was performed. We recorded patient characteristics, clinical, biological (blood and pleural fluid) and radiological findings, medical and surgical treatments, and clinical, radiological and functional follow-up. Results: 35 children with empyema were included, including 25 with a concomitant NP. Patients with or without NP were undistinguishable, in terms of characteristics, symptoms at admission or detected pathogens. Pleural leucocytes were significantly higher in the empyema group (p = 0.0002) as pleural LDH (p = 0.002), and pleural/blood LDH ratio (p = 0.0005). Medical and surgical managements were similar between both groups. Complications occurred in 1/10 children with empyema alone (pneumatocele) and 5/25 with concomitant NP (bronchopleural fistula (n = 3), lobectomy, pneumothorax). The hospital length of stay and delay for chest X-ray normalization were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Except for minor biological parameters, the presence of concomitant NP in case of empyema does not change the presentation, clinical features, management and outcome, suggesting that the presence of additional NP to empyema should not be managed differently. Therefore, in case of empyema with suspected concomitant NP, chest CT should probably be restricted to abnormal worsening or when mandatory for surgical treatment.
RPA correction to the optical potential
Blanchon G.,Dupuis M.,Mau N. Vinh,Bauge E.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20100201002
Abstract: In studies of nucleon elastic scattering, a correction to the microscopic optical potential built from Melbourne g-matrix was found to be necessary at low nucleon incident energy [1,2]. Indeed, at energies lower than 60 MeV, the absorption generated from Melbourne g-matrix is too weak within 25%. Coupling to collective excited states of the target nucleus are not included in the g-matrix and could explain the missing absorption. We propose to calculate this correction to the optical potential using the Gogny D1S effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in the coupling to excited states of the target. We use the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) description of the excited states of the target with the same interaction.
Microscopic positive-energy potential based on Gogny interaction
G. Blanchon,M. Dupuis,H. F. Arellano,N. Vinh Mau
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.91.014612
Abstract: We present nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the Random-Phase Approximation. For the first time, the Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, non-local and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross section. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schr\"odinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from $^{40}$Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to much too high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. Moreover, this works opens the way for future effective interactions suitable simultaneously for both nuclear structure and reaction.
$^{10}$Li spectrum from $^{11}$Li fragmentation
G. Blanchon,A. Bonaccorso,D. M. Brink,N. Vinh Mau
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.04.014
Abstract: A recently developed time dependent model for the excitation of a nucleon from a bound state to a continuum resonant state in the system n+core is applied to the study of the population of the low energy continuum of the unbound $^{10}$Li system obtained from $^{11}$Li fragmentation. Comparison of the model results to new data from the GSI laboratory suggests that the reaction mechanism is dominated by final state effects rather than by the sudden process, but for the population of the l=0 virtual state, in which case the two mechanisms give almost identical results. There is also, for the first time, a clear evidence for the population of a d$_{5/2}$ resonance in $^{10}$Li.
Placental Implications of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Gestation and Parturition
Valerie Borel,Denis Gallot,Geoffroy Marceau,Vincent Sapin,Lo c Blanchon
PPAR Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/758562
Abstract: The placenta is a transitory structure indispensable for the proper development of the embryo and fetus during mammalian gestation. Like other members of the nuclear receptor family, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are known to be involved in the physiological and pathological events occurring during the placentation. This placental involvement has been recently reviewed focusing on the early stages of placental development (implantation and invasion, etc.), mouse PPARs knockout phenotypes, and cytotrophoblast physiology. In this review, we describe the placental involvement of PPARs (e.g., fat transport and metabolism, etc.) during the late stages of gestation and in the amniotic membranes, highlighting their roles in the inflammation process (e.g., chorioamnionitis), metabolic disorders (e.g., diabetes), and parturition.
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