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The hydrolysis of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) protein in the presence of Alcalase?-Flavourzyme? and Pepsin-Pancreatin was investigated. The results showed that Alcalase?-Flavourzyme? (29.08%) sequential system catalyzed the hydrolysis most efficiently that Pepsin-Pancreatin (24.78%). In addition, the higher ACE-I inhibitory activity was achieved with the sequential system Alcalase?-Flavourzyme? (33.13%). Furthermore, the concentration of peptides employing an ultrafiltration (UF) system or their purification by gel filtration chromatography showed that the oligomeric peptides with lower molecular weight registered the highest ACE-I inhibitory activity. It has been demonstrated that Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates could serve as a source of peptides with ACE inhibitory activity and this activity can be attributed mainly to the mixture of short peptides in the hydrolysate.
The objective of this research was to determine the physicochemical
characteristics of fiber residues from Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) obtained by two technological processes. The
proximal composition of the fiber residues from Canavalia ensiformis registered values of moisture, ash, protein,
fat, fiber and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) of 7.14%, 3.17%, 9.14%, 1.34%, ？23.84% and 62.51% for residue A and 4.74%,
2.68%, 7.73%, 1.39%, 23.76% and 64.44% for residue B. Total dietary fiber (TDF)
contents in the fiber residues were 47.06 (Residue A) and 54.96 (Residue B)
g/100g sample, with most of this content represented by insoluble dietary fiber
(IDF) 45.46 g/100g sample in Residue A and 52.75 g/100g of sample in Residue B.
The remainder was constituted by soluble dietary fiber (SDF). The neutral
detergent fiber (NDF) content was slightly higher in residue B (41.8 g/100g
sample). Acid detergent fiber (ADF) that includes principally cellulose, lignin
and cutin, and acid detergent lignin (ADL) that include lignin and cutin were
higher in residue B (32.5 g/100g sample) and similar for both residues (1.0 (A)
and 1.2 (B) g/100g sample), respectively. Resistant starch (RS) was higher in
residue B (0.607%) than in residue A (0.358%). No statistical difference (p > 0.05) was registered in the tannins
content of both residues. However, the phytates content was higher in the fiber
residue obtained by the fists technological process (A residue). In vitro digestibility was higher in residue A (85.81%) than that in B residue (81.51%).
The results of the present study suggest the potential use of C. ensiformis fiber residues as a functional ingredient in foods, especially in the
development of reduced calorie food and dietary fiber enriched foods.
Physicochemical, functional and digestibility analyses were done of dehydrated quail egg white to determine its possible practical applications. Quail egg white was dehydrated by air convection using one of two temperatures and times: M1 (65℃, 3.5 h), M2 (65℃, 5.0 h), M3 (70℃, 3.5 h) and M4 (70℃, 5.0 h). Lyophilized quail egg white was used as a standard. All four air-dried treatments had good protein levels (92.56% to 93.96%), with electrophoresis showing the predominant proteins to be lysozyme, ovalbumin and ovotransferin. Denaturation temperatures ranged from 81.16℃ to 83.85℃ and denaturation enthalpy values from 5.51 to 9.08 J/g. Treatments M1-4 had lower water-holding (0.90 - 2.95 g/g) and oil-holding (0.92 - 1.01 g/g) capacities than the lyophilized treatment (4.5 g/g, 1.95 g/g, respectively). Foaming capacity was pH-dependent in all five treatments, with the lowest values at alkaline pH and the highest (153% to 222%) at acid pH (pH 2). Foam stability was lowest at acid pH and highest at alkaline pH. Emulsifying activity in the air-dried treatments was highest at pH 8 (41% - 46%). Emulsion stability was pH-dependent and
physicochemical characterization of oil from chia seeds was carried out.
Proximate composition analysis showed that fat and fiber were the principal components
in the raw chia flour. Physical characterization showed that chia oil has a
relative density from 0.9241, a refraction index of 1.4761 and a color with
more yellow than red units. Chemical characterization
showed that chia oil registered an acidity index of 2.053 mg KOH/g oil, a
saponification index of 222.66 mg KOH/g oil, a content of unsaponifiable matter
of 0.087%, an Iodine index of 193.45 g I/100 g oil and a peroxide index of 17.5
meq O2/kg oil. Chia oil showed a higher content of α and β linolenic and
palmitic acids. Chia oil is the vegetable source with the
highest content of essential fatty acids.