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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 193097 matches for " David B. Ugal "
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Household Environment and Maternal Health Among Rural Women of Northern Cross River State, Nigeria
David B. Ugal
E? : Revista de Humanidades Médicas & Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia y la Tecnología , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Despite policies and programmes designed to ensure safe motherhood, maternal morbidity and mortality rates have remained high in Nigeria. Household environment has been identified as crucial in maternal health; yet, little has been done to identify the environmental conditions that predispose women to morbidity and mortality in predominantly rural Northern Cross River State. This study investigated the role of household decision-making, domestic violence, access to and utilisation of maternal health facilities and socio-cultural practices that influence maternal health status. Methods: A sample of 823 respondents was drawn and used for the study. The study involved both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Twenty each of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and In-depth Interviews (IDIs) were conducted among women of different ages, traditional birth attendants and elders were key informants. Results: Household environment is significantly related to maternal health (χ2=15.8; P<0.05). The likelihood of better maternal health was significantly higher among households that used flush toilet than pit/latrine (OR=3.2; P<0.05), pipe-borne water than stream water (OR=5.0 P<0.05), electricity/gas for cooking than firewood (OR=8.9, P<0.05). Toilet facilities, water sources and cooking environment were poor among many women thereby exposing them to various infections. Socio-economic status of women played a significant role in maternal health (χ2=13.8; P<0.05). Ever married women had better health status than those that were single (χ2=10.0; P<0.05); women who had their first babies earlier than 20 years of age had poorer health status compared to those who had them later (χ2=14.9; P<0.05). However, maternal educational qualification showed no significant relationship with maternal health. Household sanitation and hygiene behaviour were significantly related to maternal health status (χ2=10.5; P<0.05; χ2=16.5; P<0.05).Conclusion: Maternal health is the result of cumulative effects of household environment, cultural practices, attitudes and behaviours. Improving the household environment and behaviour could improve maternal health. This could be achieved through improvement of health services and information in the rural communities.
Humanoid Robots That Behave, Speak, and Think Like Humans:A Reduction to Practice RRC-Humanoid Robot  [PDF]
Alan Rosen, David B. Rosen
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.71001
Abstract: A radical new approach is presented to programming human-like levels of Artificial Intelligence (AI) into a humanoid robot equipped with a verbal-phoneme sound generator. The system shares 3 important characteristics with human-like input data and processing: 1) The raw data and preliminary processing of the raw data are human-like. 2) All the data are subjective, that is related and correlated with a robotic self-identity coordinate frame. 3) All the data are programmed behaviorally into the system. A multi-tasking Relational Robotic Controller (RRC)-Humanoid Robot, described and published in the peer-reviewed literature, has been specifically designed to fulfill those 3 characteristics. A RRC-controlled system may be behaviorally programmed to achieve human-like high I.Q. levels of subjective AI for the visual signals and the declarative-verbal words and sentences heard by the robot. A proof of concept RRC-Humanoid Robot is under development and present status is presented at the end of the paper.
A Blueberry Extract Supplemented Diet Partially Restores α-Synuclein-Dependent Lifespan Loss and Developmental Defects in Drosophila  [PDF]
David B. Lipsett, Brian E. Staveley
Advances in Parkinson's Disease (APD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/apd.2014.32002

Oxidative stress has been strongly associated with Parkinson disease (PD) aetiology. We investigated the effects of blueberry extract (BBE) supplementation on α-synuclein induced phenotypes in a Drosophila melanogaster model of PD. Enhanced α-synuclein expression in D. melanogaster dopaminergic (DA) neurons can reduce lifespan and we have performed longevity assays to measure the effects of BBE on D. melanogaster survival. Flies expressing α-synuclein in their DA neurons fed BBE had up to an 8 day, or 15%, greater median lifespan than those fed a standard control diet. In addition, BBE improved α-synuclein-induced developmental defects in the Drosophila eye. Our biometric analyses revealed that individuals fed BBE had less atypical ommatidia as well as an increased number of mechanosensory bristle cells than those fed a control diet. We propose that BBE, rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, promotes the survival of neurons in tissues with increased levels of α-synuclein through a protective cell survival mechanism.

Characteristics, Treatment, and Outcomes Associated with Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center  [PDF]
David B. Huang, Han Lee, Tom Chiang
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.41001

We conducted a study to assess the characteristics, treatment and outcomes associated with Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Fifty-eight consecutive individual cases of C. difficile infection in 2013 were observed within the Veterans Affairs New Jersey Health Care System (VA NJHCS). We molecularly typed all 58 individual strains and identified the associated characteristics, treatment and outcomes. Forty-four out of 58 specimens (76%) which were probed had characteristics of the epidemic strain BI/NAP1/027 making this virulent strain to be the predominate strain at the VA NJHCS. All C. difficile BI/NAP1/027 strains were resistant to fluoroquinolones and sensitive to fidaxomicin, metronidazole and vancomycin. Fidaxomicin had the most potent in vitro activity (MIC90 = 0.5 μg/ml) against the BI/NAP1/027 strain. Twenty-six of 44 patients (59%) with the virulent strain were from a long-term care facility (LTCF). Patients possessing the virulent strain from the LTCF had a mean APACHE II score of 14.1 and a predicted death rate of 21.9%. Two-third of patients were treated with metronidazole alone (mean APACHE II scores 9.6), and one-third required oral vancomycin and metronidazole (mean APACHE II scores 14.1). There were no C. difficile infection related deaths. C. difficile BI/NAP1/027, an epidemic strain, is the endemic strain at the VA NJHCS, but no increased mortality was seen with infection with this strain.

Bacteremia Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii: Epidemiologic Features, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Outcomes  [PDF]
Tom Chiang, Mina Pastagia, David B. Huang
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.41011

Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia is becoming more prevalent and is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality. Escalating antibacterial resistance further contributes to therapeutic dilemmas, enhanced infection control support and poorer outcomes in patients infected with these bacteria. A retrospective analysis of patients whose blood cultures produced A. baumannii from January 2007 through January 2013 was performed. Data regarding the epidemiologic features, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcomes of patients with A. baumannii bacteremia were collected and analyzed. Sixty A. baumannii isolates each from a different patient were identified. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (≥3) was the greatest among patients with multi-drug resistance (MDR) compared to intermediate drug resistance (IDR) and pan-sensitive (PS) A. baumannii. The mean APACHE II scores for MDR, IDR and PS A. baumannii bacteremia were 21, 15 and 11, respectively (P < 0.05, MDR v. PS). Seventy-three percent of the isolates were resistant to quinolones, 44% to piperacillin/tazobactam, 45% to amikacin, 22% to imipenem, 0% to ticarcillin/clavulanate, and 0% to polymyxin. Among 28 patients with MDR A. baumannii bacteremia, 20 received inadequate empiric treatment, and 16 of these patients died (80%). Of the remaining eight patients with MDR bacteremia who received adequate empiric antibiotics, only two died (25%). The severity of underlying illness, degree of antibiotic resistance and receiving inadequate initial antibiotic therapy are associated with mortality among patients with bacteremia due to A. baumannii.

Point Mutation Analysis of PMP22 in Patients Referred for Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies  [PDF]
Samuel B. Brown, David J. Bunyan
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.46040
Abstract: A cohort of 404 patients referred for hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies was tested initially for the common PMP22 whole gene deletion. 94 whole gene deletions were detected, plus three partial gene deletions, and the remaining 307 patients were screened for PMP22 point mutations. Nine point mutations were identified (8.5% of all mutations), eight of which were in exon 5, suggesting a point mutation hotspot for individuals with this condition. Sequencing analysis of PMP22 exon 5 should therefore be included as a routine diagnostic test for gene deletion-negative patients.
A Coding of Real Null Four-Momenta into World-Sheet Coordinates
David B. Fairlie
Advances in Mathematical Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/284689
Abstract: The results of minimizing the action for string-like systems on a simply connected world sheet are shown to encode the Cartesian components of real null momentum four-vectors into coordinates on the world sheet. This identification arises consistently from different approaches to the problem.
A View from the Dark Side
David B Searls
PLOS Computational Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030105
Ten Simple Rules for Online Learning
David B. Searls
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002631
An Online Bioinformatics Curriculum
David B. Searls
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002632
Abstract: Online learning initiatives over the past decade have become increasingly comprehensive in their selection of courses and sophisticated in their presentation, culminating in the recent announcement of a number of consortium and startup activities that promise to make a university education on the internet, free of charge, a real possibility. At this pivotal moment it is appropriate to explore the potential for obtaining comprehensive bioinformatics training with currently existing free video resources. This article presents such a bioinformatics curriculum in the form of a virtual course catalog, together with editorial commentary, and an assessment of strengths, weaknesses, and likely future directions for open online learning in this field.
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