Abstract:
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential to most fundamental cellular processes. There has been increasing interest in reconstructing PPIs networks. However, several critical difficulties exist in obtaining reliable predictions. Noticeably, false positive rates can be as high as >80%. Error correction from each generating source can be both time-consuming and inefficient due to the difficulty of covering the errors from multiple levels of data processing procedures within a single test. We propose a novel Bayesian integration method, deemed nonparametric Bayes ensemble learning (NBEL), to lower the misclassification rate (both false positives and negatives) through automatically up-weighting data sources that are most informative, while down-weighting less informative and biased sources. Extensive studies indicate that NBEL is significantly more robust than the classic na？ve Bayes to unreliable, error-prone and contaminated data. On a large human data set our NBEL approach predicts many more PPIs than na？ve Bayes. This suggests that previous studies may have large numbers of not only false positives but also false negatives. The validation on two human PPIs datasets having high quality supports our observations. Our experiments demonstrate that it is feasible to predict high-throughput PPIs computationally with substantially reduced false positives and false negatives. The ability of predicting large numbers of PPIs both reliably and automatically may inspire people to use computational approaches to correct data errors in general, and may speed up PPIs prediction with high quality. Such a reliable prediction may provide a solid platform to other studies such as protein functions prediction and roles of PPIs in disease susceptibility.

Abstract:
As an alternative to variable selection or shrinkage in high dimensional regression, we propose to randomly compress the predictors prior to analysis. This dramatically reduces storage and computational bottlenecks, performing well when the predictors can be projected to a low dimensional linear subspace with minimal loss of information about the response. As opposed to existing Bayesian dimensionality reduction approaches, the exact posterior distribution conditional on the compressed data is available analytically, speeding up computation by many orders of magnitude while also bypassing robustness issues due to convergence and mixing problems with MCMC. Model averaging is used to reduce sensitivity to the random projection matrix, while accommodating uncertainty in the subspace dimension. Strong theoretical support is provided for the approach by showing near parametric convergence rates for the predictive density in the large p small n asymptotic paradigm. Practical performance relative to competitors is illustrated in simulations and real data applications.

Abstract:
With the rapidly growing scales of statistical problems, subset based communication-free parallel MCMC methods are a promising future for large scale Bayesian analysis. In this article, we propose a new Weierstrass sampler for parallel MCMC based on independent subsets. The new sampler approximates the full data posterior samples via combining the posterior draws from independent subset MCMC chains, and thus enjoys a higher computational efficiency. We show that the approximation error for the Weierstrass sampler is bounded by some tuning parameters and provide suggestions for choice of the values. Simulation study shows the Weierstrass sampler is very competitive compared to other methods for combining MCMC chains generated for subsets, including averaging and kernel smoothing.

Abstract:
In broad applications, it is routinely of interest to assess whether there is evidence in the data to refute the assumption of conditional independence of $Y$ and $X$ conditionally on $Z$. Such tests are well developed in parametric models but are not straightforward in the nonparametric case. We propose a general Bayesian approach, which relies on an encompassing nonparametric Bayes model for the joint distribution of $Y$, $X$ and $Z$. The framework allows $Y$, $X$ and $Z$ to be random variables on arbitrary spaces, and can accommodate different dimensional vectors having a mixture of discrete and continuous measurement scales. Using conditional mutual information as a scalar summary of the strength of the conditional dependence relationship, we construct null and alternative hypotheses. We provide conditions under which the correct hypothesis will be consistently selected. Computational methods are developed, which can be incorporated within MCMC algorithms for the encompassing model. The methods are applied to variable selection and assessed through simulations and criminology applications.

Abstract:
Although there are many methods for functional data analysis (FDA), little emphasis is put on characterizing variability among volatilities of individual functions. In particular, certain individuals exhibit erratic swings in their trajectory while other individuals have more stable trajectories. There is evidence of such volatility heterogeneity in blood pressure trajectories during pregnancy, for example, and reason to suspect that volatility is a biologically important feature. Most FDA models implicitly assume similar or identical smoothness of the individual functions, and hence can lead to misleading inferences on volatility and an inadequate representation of the functions. We propose a novel class of FDA models characterized using hierarchical stochastic differential equations. We model the derivatives of a mean function and deviation functions using Gaussian processes, while also allowing covariate dependence including on the volatilities of the deviation functions. Following a Bayesian approach to inference, a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used for posterior computation. The methods are tested on simulated data and applied to blood pressure trajectories during pregnancy.

Abstract:
In many application areas, data are collected on a categorical response and high-dimensional categorical predictors, with the goals being to build a parsimonious model for classification while doing inferences on the important predictors. In settings such as genomics, there can be complex interactions among the predictors. By using a carefully-structured Tucker factorization, we define a model that can characterize any conditional probability, while facilitating variable selection and modeling of higher-order interactions. Following a Bayesian approach, we propose a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for posterior computation accommodating uncertainty in the predictors to be included. Under near sparsity assumptions, the posterior distribution for the conditional probability is shown to achieve close to the parametric rate of contraction even in ultra high-dimensional settings. The methods are illustrated using simulation examples and biomedical applications.

Abstract:
In many applications, it is of interest to study trends over time in relationships among categorical variables, such as age group, ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party and preference for particular policies. At each time point, a sample of individuals provide responses to a set of questions, with different individuals sampled at each time. In such settings, there tends to be abundant missing data and the variables being measured may change over time. At each time point, one obtains a large sparse contingency table, with the number of cells often much larger than the number of individuals being surveyed. To borrow information across time in modeling large sparse contingency tables, we propose a Bayesian autoregressive tensor factorization approach. The proposed model relies on a probabilistic Parafac factorization of the joint pmf characterizing the categorical data distribution at each time point, with autocorrelation included across times. Efficient computational methods are developed relying on MCMC. The methods are evaluated through simulation examples and applied to social survey data.

Abstract:
Nonparametric regression for massive numbers of samples (n) and features (p) is an increasingly important problem. In big n settings, a common strategy is to partition the feature space, and then separately apply simple models to each partition set. We propose an alternative approach, which avoids such partitioning and the associated sensitivity to neighborhood choice and distance metrics, by using random compression combined with Gaussian process regression. The proposed approach is particularly motivated by the setting in which the response is conditionally independent of the features given the projection to a low dimensional manifold. Conditionally on the random compression matrix and a smoothness parameter, the posterior distribution for the regression surface and posterior predictive distributions are available analytically. Running the analysis in parallel for many random compression matrices and smoothness parameters, model averaging is used to combine the results. The algorithm can be implemented rapidly even in very big n and p problems, has strong theoretical justification, and is found to yield state of the art predictive performance.

Abstract:
Data on count processes arise in a variety of applications, including longitudinal, spatial and imaging studies measuring count responses. The literature on statistical models for dependent count data is dominated by models built from hierarchical Poisson components. The Poisson assumption is not warranted in many applications, and hierarchical Poisson models make restrictive assumptions about over-dispersion in marginal distributions. This article proposes a class of nonparametric Bayes count process models, which are constructed through rounding real-valued underlying processes. The proposed class of models accommodates applications in which one observes separate count-valued functional data for each subject under study. Theoretical results on large support and posterior consistency are established, and computational algorithms are developed using Markov chain Monte Carlo. The methods are evaluated via simulation studies and illustrated through application to longitudinal tumor counts and asthma inhaler usage.

Abstract:
Although discrete mixture modeling has formed the backbone of the literature on Bayesian density estimation, there are some well known disadvantages. We propose an alternative class of priors based on random nonlinear functions of a uniform latent variable with an additive residual. The induced prior for the density is shown to have desirable properties including ease of centering on an initial guess for the density, large support, posterior consistency and straightforward computation via Gibbs sampling. Some advantages over discrete mixtures, such as Dirichlet process mixtures of Gaussian kernels, are discussed and illustrated via simulations and an epidemiology application.