Abstract:
We present the analytic solution of the Mode III steady-state crack in a square lattice with piecewise linear springs and Kelvin viscosity. We show how the results simplify in the limit of large width. We relate our results to a model where the continuum limit is taken only along the crack direction. We present results for small velocity, and for large viscosity, and discuss the structure of the critical bifurcation for small velocity. We compute the size of the process zone wherein standard continuum elasticity theory breaks down.

Abstract:
We study the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model of the spread of an endemic infection. We calculate an exact expression for the mean number of transmissions for all values of the population and the infectivity. We derive the large-N asymptotic behavior for the infectivitiy below, above, and in the critical region. We obtain an analytical expression for the probability distribution of the number of transmissions, n, in the critical region. We show that this distribution has a $n^3/2$ singularity for small n and decays exponentially for large n. The exponent decreases with the distance from threshold, diverging to infinity far below and approaching zero far above.

Abstract:
Spiral waves are a ubiquitous feature of the nonequilibrium dynamics of a great variety of excitable systems. In the limit of a large separation in timescale between fast excitation and slow recovery, one can reduce the spiral problem to one involving the motion of a free surface separating the excited and quiescent phases. In this work, we study the free surface problem in the limit of small diffusivity for the slow field variable. Specifically, we show that a previously found spiral solution in the diffusionless limit can be extended to finite diffusivity, without significant alteration. This extension involves the creation of a variety of boundary layers which cure all the undesirable singularities of the aforementioned solution. The implications of our results for the study of spiral stability are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
We generalize lattice models of brittle fracture to arbitrary nonlinear force laws and study the existence of arrested semi-infinite cracks. Unlike what is seen in the discontinuous case studied to date, the range in driving displacement for which these arrested cracks exist is very small. Also, our results indicate that small changes in the vicinity of the crack tip can have an extremely large effect on arrested cracks. Finally, we briefly discuss the possible relevance of our findings to recent experiments.

Abstract:
Speckle patterns produced by random optical fields with two (or more) widely different correlation lengths exhibit speckle spots that are themselves highly speckled. Using computer simulations and analytic theory we present results for the point singularities of speckled speckle fields: optical vortices in scalar (one polarization component) fields; C points in vector (two polarization component) fields. In single correlation length fields both types of singularities tend to be more{}-or{}-less uniformly distributed. In contrast, the singularity structure of speckled speckle is anomalous: for some sets of source parameters vortices and C points tend to form widely separated giant clusters, for other parameter sets these singularities tend to form chains that surround large empty regions. The critical point statistics of speckled speckle is also anomalous. In scalar (vector) single correlation length fields phase (azimuthal) extrema are always outnumbered by vortices (C points). In contrast, in speckled speckle fields, phase extrema can outnumber vortices, and azimuthal extrema can outnumber C points, by factors that can easily exceed $10^{4}$ for experimentally realistic source parameters.

Abstract:
Screening of topological charges (singularities) is discussed for paraxial optical fields with short and with long range correlations. For short range screening the charge variance in a circular region with radius $R$ grows linearly with $R$, instead of with $R^{2}$ as expected in the absence of screening; for long range screening it grows faster than $R$: for a field whose autocorrelation function is the zero order Bessel function J_{0}, the charge variance grows as R ln R$. A J_{0} correlation function is not attainable in practice, but we show how to generate an optical field whose correlation function closely approximates this form. The charge variance can be measured by counting positive and negative singularities inside the region A, or more easily by counting signed zero crossings on the perimeter of A. \For the first method the charge variance is calculated by integration over the charge correlation function C(r), for the second by integration over the zero crossing correlation function Gamma(r). Using the explicit forms of C(r) and of Gamma(r) we show that both methods of calculation yield the same result. We show that for short range screening the zero crossings can be counted along a straight line whose length equals P, but that for long range screening this simplification no longer holds. We also show that for realizable optical fields, for sufficiently small R, the charge variance goes as R^2, whereas for sufficiently large R, it grows as R. These universal laws are applicable to both short and pseudo-long range correlation functions.

Abstract:
We solve the Fokker-Planck equation for Brownian motion in a logarithmic potential. When the diffusion constant is below a critical value the solution approaches a non-normalizable scaling state, reminiscent of an infinite invariant density. With this non-normalizable density we obtain the phase diagram of anomalous diffusion for this important process. We briefly discuss the consequence for a range of physical systems including atoms in optical lattices and charges in vicinity of long polyelectrolytes. Our work explains in what sense the infinite invariant density and not Boltzmann's equilibrium describes the long time limit of these systems.

Abstract:
We present a generalized model of a diffusion-reaction system where the reaction occurs only on the boundary. This model reduces to that of Barato and Hinrichsen when the occupancy of the boundary site is restricted to zero or one. In the limit when there is no restriction on the occupancy of the boundary site, the model reduces to an age dependent Galton-Watson branching process and admits an analytic solution. The model displays a boundary-induced phase transition into an absorbing state with rational critical exponents and exhibits aging at criticality below a certain fractal dimension of the diffusion process. Surprisingly the behavior in the critical regime for intermediate occupancy restriction $N$ varies with $N$. In fact, by varying the lifetime of the active boundary particle or the diffusion coefficient in the bulk, the critical exponents can be continuously modified.

Abstract:
We develop a novel biased Monte-Carlo simulation technique to measure the force-extension curves and the distribution function of the extension of fluctuating filaments stretched by external force. The method is applicable for arbitrary ratio of the persistence length to the contour length and for arbitrary forces. The simulation results agree with analytic expressions for the force-extension curves and for the renormalized length-scale-dependent elastic moduli, derived in the rigid rod and in the strong force limits. We find that orientational fluctuations and wall effects produce non-Gaussian distributions for nearly rigid filaments in the small to intermediate force regime. We compare our results to the predictions of previous investigators and propose new experiments on nearly rigid rods such as actin filaments.

Abstract:
We study screening of optical singularities in random optical fields with two widely different length scales. We call the speckle patterns generated by such fields speckled speckle, because the major speckle spots in the pattern are themselves highly speckled. We study combinations of fields whose components exhibit short- and long-range correlations, and find unusual forms of screening.