Abstract:
The longitudinal and Hall resistances have recently been measured for quantum Hall bilayers at total filling $\nu=1$ in the superfluid state with interlayer pairing, both for currents flowing parallel to one another and for "counterflowing" currents in the two layers. Here I examine the contribution to these resistances from the motion of unpaired vortices in these systems, developing some possible explanations of various qualitative features of these data.

Abstract:
We investigate the stability of the square vortex lattice which has been recently observed in experiments on the borocarbide family of superconductors. Taking into account the tetragonal symmetry of these systems, we add fourfold symmetric fourth-derivative terms to the Ginzburg-Landau(GL) free energy. At $H_{c2}$ these terms may be treated perturbatively to lowest order to locate the transition from a distorted hexagonal to a square vortex lattice. We also solve for this phase boundary numerically in the strongly type-II limit, finding large corrections to the lowest-order perturbative results. We calculate the relative fourfold $H_{c2}$ anisotropy for field in the $xy$ plane to be 4.5% at the temperature, $T_c^{\Box}$, where the transition occurs at $H_{c2}$ for field along the $z$ axis. This is to be compared to the 3.6% obtained in the perturbative calculation. Furthermore, we find that the phase boundary in the $H-T$ phase diagram has positive slope near $H_{c2}$.

Abstract:
We have simulated the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation with thermal fluctuations, to study the nonlocal dc conductivity of a superconducting film. Having examined points in the phase diagram at a wide range of temperatures and fields below the mean-field upper critical field, we find a portion of the vortex-liquid regime in which the nonlocal ohmic conductivity in real space is negative over a distance several times the spacing between vortices. The effect is suppressed when driven beyond linear response. Earlier work had predicted the existence of such a regime, due to the high viscosity of a strongly-correlated vortex liquid. This behavior is clearly distinguishable from the monotonic spatial fall-off of the conductivity in the higher temperature or field regimes approaching the normal state. The possibilities for experimental study of the nonlocal transport properties are discussed.

Abstract:
We use exact diagonalization to explore the many-body localization transition in a random-field spin-1/2 chain. We examine the correlations within each many-body eigenstate, looking at all states and thus effectively working at infinite temperature. For weak random field the eigenstates are thermal, as expected in this nonlocalized, ergodic phase. For strong random field the eigenstates are localized, with only short-range entanglement. We roughly locate the localization transition and examine the probability distributions of the correlations, finding that this quantum phase transition at nonzero temperature may be showing infinite-randomness scaling.

Abstract:
The low-energy properties of a system at a critical point may have additional symmetries not present in the microscopic Hamiltonian. This letter presents the theory of a class of multicritical points that provide an interesting example of this in the phase diagrams of random antiferromagnetic spin chains. One case provides an analytic theory of the quantum critical point in the random spin-3/2 chain, studied in recent work by Refael, Kehrein and Fisher (cond-mat/0111295).

Abstract:
We consider isolated quantum systems with all of their many-body eigenstates localized. We define a sense in which such systems are integrable, and discuss a method for finding their localized conserved quantum numbers ("constants of motion"). These localized operators are interacting pseudospins and are subject to dephasing but not to dissipation, so any quantum states of these pseudospins can in principle be recovered via (spin) echo procedures. We also discuss the spreading of entanglement in many-body localized systems, which is another aspect of the dephasing due to interactions between these localized conserved operators.

Abstract:
In classical XY kagome antiferromagnets, there can be a novel low temperature phase where $\psi^3=e^{i3\theta}$ has quasi-long-range order but $\psi$ is disordered, as well as more conventional antiferromagnetic phases where $\psi$ is ordered in various possible patterns ($\theta$ is the angle of orientation of the spin). To investigate when these phases exist in a physical system, we study superconducting kagome wire networks in a transverse magnetic field when the magnetic flux through an elementary triangle is a half of a flux quantum. Within Ginzburg-Landau theory, we calculate the helicity moduli of each phase to estimate the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition temperatures. Then at the KT temperatures, we estimate the barriers to move vortices and effects that lift the large degeneracy in the possible $\psi$ patterns. The effects we have considered are inductive couplings, non-zero wire width, and the order-by-disorder effect due to thermal fluctuations. The first two effects prefer $q=0$ patterns while the last one selects a $\sqrt{3}\times\sqrt{3}$ pattern of supercurrents. Using the parameters of recent experiments, we conclude that at the KT temperature, the non-zero wire width effect dominates, which stabilizes a conventional superconducting phase with a $q=0$ current pattern. However, by adjusting the experimental parameters, for example by bending the wires a little, it appears that the novel $\psi^3$ superconducting phase can instead be stabilized. The barriers to vortex motion are low enough that the system can equilibrate into this phase.

Abstract:
We suggest that if a localized phase at nonzero temperature $T>0$ exists for strongly disordered and weakly interacting electrons, as recently argued, it will also occur when both disorder and interactions are strong and $T$ is very high. We show that in this high-$T$ regime the localization transition may be studied numerically through exact diagonalization of small systems. We obtain spectra for one-dimensional lattice models of interacting spinless fermions in a random potential. As expected, the spectral statistics of finite-size samples cross over from those of orthogonal random matrices in the diffusive regime at weak random potential to Poisson statistics in the localized regime at strong randomness. However, these data show deviations from simple one-parameter finite-size scaling: the apparent mobility edge ``drifts'' as the system's size is increased. Based on spectral statistics alone, we have thus been unable to make a strong numerical case for the presence of a many-body localized phase at nonzero $T$.

Abstract:
We revisit the question of the "sign phase transition" for interfering directed paths with real amplitudes in a random medium. The sign of the total amplitude of the paths to a given point may be viewed as an Ising order parameter, so we suggest that a coarse-grained theory for system is a dynamic Ising model coupled to a Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) model. It appears that when the KPZ model is in its strong-coupling ("pinned") phase, the Ising model does not have a stable ferromagnetic phase, so there is no sign phase transition. We investigate this numerically for the case of {\ss}1+1 dimensions, demonstrating the instability of the Ising ordered phase there.

Abstract:
We use exact diagonalization to explore the many-body localization transition in a random-field spin-1/2 chain. We examine the correlations within each many-body eigenstate, looking at all high-energy states and thus effectively working at infinite temperature. For weak random field the eigenstates are thermal, as expected in this nonlocalized, "ergodic" phase. For strong random field the eigenstates are localized, with only short-range entanglement. We roughly locate the localization transition and examine some of its finite-size scaling, finding that this quantum phase transition at nonzero temperature might be showing infinite-randomness scaling with a dynamic critical exponent $z\rightarrow\infty$.