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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 163014 matches for " Daunais James B "
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Facilitation of Task Performance and Removal of the Effects of Sleep Deprivation by an Ampakine (CX717) in Nonhuman Primates
Linda J. Porrino,James B. Daunais,Gary A. Rogers,Robert E. Hampson,Sam A. Deadwyler
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030299
Abstract: The deleterious effects of prolonged sleep deprivation on behavior and cognition are a concern in modern society. Persons at risk for impaired performance and health-related issues resulting from prolonged sleep loss would benefit from agents capable of reducing these detrimental effects at the time they are sleep deprived. Agents capable of improving cognition by enhancing brain activity under normal circumstances may also have the potential to reduce the harmful or unwanted effects of sleep deprivation. The significant prevalence of excitatory α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepr?opionicacid (AMPA) glutamatergic receptors in the brain provides a basis for implementing a class of drugs that could act to alter or remove the effects of sleep deprivation. The ampakine CX717 (Cortex Pharmaceuticals), a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors, was tested for its ability to enhance performance of a cognitive, delayed match-to-sample task under normal circumstances in well-trained monkeys, as well as alleviate the detrimental effects of 30–36 h of sleep deprivation. CX717 produced a dose-dependent enhancement of task performance under normal alert testing conditions. Concomitant measures of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc) during the task, utilizing positron emission tomography, revealed increased activity in prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and medial temporal lobe (including hippocampus) that was significantly enhanced over normal alert conditions following administration of CX717. A single night of sleep deprivation produced severe impairments in performance in the same monkeys, accompanied by significant alterations in task-related CMRglc in these same brain regions. However, CX717 administered to sleep-deprived monkeys produced a striking removal of the behavioral impairment and returned performance to above-normal levels even though animals were sleep deprived. Consistent with this recovery, CMRglc in all but one brain region affected by sleep deprivation was also returned to the normal alert pattern by the drug. The ampakine CX717, in addition to enhancing cognitive performance under normal alert conditions, also proved effective in alleviating impairment of performance due to sleep deprivation. Therefore, the ability to activate specific brain regions under normal alert conditions and alter the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on activity in those same regions indicate a potential role for ampakines in sustaining performance under these types of adverse conditions.
Facilitation of task performance and removal of the effects of sleep deprivation by an ampakine (CX717) in nonhuman primates.
Porrino Linda J,Daunais James B,Rogers Gary A,Hampson Robert E
PLOS Biology , 2005,
Abstract: The deleterious effects of prolonged sleep deprivation on behavior and cognition are a concern in modern society. Persons at risk for impaired performance and health-related issues resulting from prolonged sleep loss would benefit from agents capable of reducing these detrimental effects at the time they are sleep deprived. Agents capable of improving cognition by enhancing brain activity under normal circumstances may also have the potential to reduce the harmful or unwanted effects of sleep deprivation. The significant prevalence of excitatory alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamatergic receptors in the brain provides a basis for implementing a class of drugs that could act to alter or remove the effects of sleep deprivation. The ampakine CX717 (Cortex Pharmaceuticals), a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors, was tested for its ability to enhance performance of a cognitive, delayed match-to-sample task under normal circumstances in well-trained monkeys, as well as alleviate the detrimental effects of 30-36 h of sleep deprivation. CX717 produced a dose-dependent enhancement of task performance under normal alert testing conditions. Concomitant measures of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc) during the task, utilizing positron emission tomography, revealed increased activity in prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and medial temporal lobe (including hippocampus) that was significantly enhanced over normal alert conditions following administration of CX717. A single night of sleep deprivation produced severe impairments in performance in the same monkeys, accompanied by significant alterations in task-related CMRglc in these same brain regions. However, CX717 administered to sleep-deprived monkeys produced a striking removal of the behavioral impairment and returned performance to above-normal levels even though animals were sleep deprived. Consistent with this recovery, CMRglc in all but one brain region affected by sleep deprivation was also returned to the normal alert pattern by the drug. The ampakine CX717, in addition to enhancing cognitive performance under normal alert conditions, also proved effective in alleviating impairment of performance due to sleep deprivation. Therefore, the ability to activate specific brain regions under normal alert conditions and alter the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on activity in those same regions indicate a potential role for ampakines in sustaining performance under these types of adverse conditions.
Facilitation of Task Performance and Removal of the Effects of Sleep Deprivation by an Ampakine (CX717) in Nonhuman Primates
Linda J Porrino,James B Daunais,Gary A Rogers,Robert E Hampson,Sam A Deadwyler
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030299
Abstract: The deleterious effects of prolonged sleep deprivation on behavior and cognition are a concern in modern society. Persons at risk for impaired performance and health-related issues resulting from prolonged sleep loss would benefit from agents capable of reducing these detrimental effects at the time they are sleep deprived. Agents capable of improving cognition by enhancing brain activity under normal circumstances may also have the potential to reduce the harmful or unwanted effects of sleep deprivation. The significant prevalence of excitatory α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepr?opionicacid (AMPA) glutamatergic receptors in the brain provides a basis for implementing a class of drugs that could act to alter or remove the effects of sleep deprivation. The ampakine CX717 (Cortex Pharmaceuticals), a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors, was tested for its ability to enhance performance of a cognitive, delayed match-to-sample task under normal circumstances in well-trained monkeys, as well as alleviate the detrimental effects of 30–36 h of sleep deprivation. CX717 produced a dose-dependent enhancement of task performance under normal alert testing conditions. Concomitant measures of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc) during the task, utilizing positron emission tomography, revealed increased activity in prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and medial temporal lobe (including hippocampus) that was significantly enhanced over normal alert conditions following administration of CX717. A single night of sleep deprivation produced severe impairments in performance in the same monkeys, accompanied by significant alterations in task-related CMRglc in these same brain regions. However, CX717 administered to sleep-deprived monkeys produced a striking removal of the behavioral impairment and returned performance to above-normal levels even though animals were sleep deprived. Consistent with this recovery, CMRglc in all but one brain region affected by sleep deprivation was also returned to the normal alert pattern by the drug. The ampakine CX717, in addition to enhancing cognitive performance under normal alert conditions, also proved effective in alleviating impairment of performance due to sleep deprivation. Therefore, the ability to activate specific brain regions under normal alert conditions and alter the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on activity in those same regions indicate a potential role for ampakines in sustaining performance under these types of adverse conditions.
Primate cerebellar granule cells exhibit a tonic GABAAR conductance that is not affected by alcohol: a possible cellular substrate of the low level of response phenotype
Claudia Mohr,Olena Kolotushkina,Joshua S. Kaplan,John Welsh,James B. Daunais,Kathleen A. Grant,David J. Rossi
Frontiers in Neural Circuits , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fncir.2013.00189
Abstract: In many rodent brain regions, alcohol increases vesicular release of GABA, resulting in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and the magnitude of tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) currents. A neglected issue in translating the rodent literature to humans is the possibility that phylogenetic differences alter the actions of alcohol. To address this issue we made voltage-clamp recordings from granule cells (GCs) in cerebellar slices from the non-human primate (NHP), Macaca fascicularis. We found that similar to Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs), NHP GCs exhibit a tonic conductance generated by α6δ subunit containing GABAARs, as evidenced by its blockade by the broad spectrum GABAAR antagonist, GABAzine (10 μM), inhibition by α6 selective antagonist, furosemide (100 μM), and enhancement by THDOC (10–20 nM) and THIP (500 nM). In contrast to SDR GCs, in most NHP GCs (~60%), application of EtOH (25–105 mM) did not increase sIPSC frequency or the tonic GABAAR current. In a minority of cells (~40%), EtOH did increase sIPSC frequency and the tonic current. The relative lack of response to EtOH was associated with reduced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which we recently reported mediates EtOH-induced enhancement of vesicular GABA release in rats. The EtOH-induced increase in tonic GABAAR current was significantly smaller in NHPs than in SDRs, presumably due to less GABA release, because there were no obvious differences in the density of GABAARs or GABA transporters between SDR and NHP GCs. Thus, EtOH does not directly modulate α6δ subunit GABAARs in NHPs. Instead, EtOH enhanced GABAergic transmission is mediated by enhanced GABA release. Further, SDR GC responses to alcohol are only representative of a subpopulation of NHP GCs. This suggests that the impact of EtOH on NHP cerebellar physiology will be reduced compared to SDRs, and will likely have different computational and behavioral consequences.
Admissibility of the Defendant’s Criminal Records at Trial  [PDF]
James B. Jacobs
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.43015
Abstract:

The jury trial, which is a hallmark of the Anglo-American adversary system, requires close attention to the evidence that it is permissible for the lay jurors to hear. No evidentiary issue has proved more contentious than the admissibility of witnesses’, especially defendants’, prior criminal history because of concern that the lay jurors might prejudicially infer present guilt from past criminality. This article explains the complex evidentiary rules for admitting criminal history to prove guilt and to impeach witness credibility. It suggests that inquisitorial trial procedure, which historically has been unconcerned that judges know about the defendant’s prior criminal history while they are determining present guilt may have to restrict admissibility of such evidence as lay juries become more common.

Effect of Signature Card on Disposition of Joint Bank Account upon Death of Co-Owner under New York Banking Law  [PDF]
James B. Biagi
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.54024
Abstract: It is a common practice for people to open a bank account in the name of one or more owners (a/k/a co-owners) and not just in the name of a single person alone. It is also common for an individual to be added to the ownership of an existing account once it has been established. Oftentimes spouses, friends, family or business associates decide for various reasons, both financial and personal, to establish a joint bank account and hold it as co-owners. Furthermore, as the population ages, it has become a common practice for elderly individuals to place another person’s name on a bank account, effectively creating a joint account arrangement for a once individually held account. As is often the case when multiple parties share in a financial transaction, disputes can arise as to the disposition of the funds held in such an account, either during life or at death. In order to address this issue, New York, a major world financial center, has put in place specific legislation to address the disposition of a joint bank account governed by the laws of that State. In this article, the author discusses New York Banking Law §675 and its application to the transfer of funds held in a joint account at the death of a co-owner, paying particular attention to the effect of the account’s signature card on the issue.
Applications of the Phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in Infectious Diseases
James B. Hudson
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/769896
Abstract: Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower) have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses.
Mixing processes and exchanges in the tropical and the subtropical UT/LS
R. James ,B. Legras
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: Both in situ measurements and satellite observations indicate evidence of mixing in the upper troposphere (UT) and the lower-stratosphere (LS). In this study, the measurements performed during the Pre-AVE and Costa-Rica AVE campaigns are analysed with diffusive back-trajectories to assess mixing properties in the tropical and the subtropical UT/LS. A description of cross-tropopause pathways and mixing time scales is provided. In the subtropics, Troposphere-Stratosphere mixing processes are found to differ in the vicinity of the tropopause and at higher altitudes. Below 350 K, a mixing line observed during Pre-AVE is shown to result from fast and local cross-tropopause irreversible exchange, involving two initially distant air masses with distinct chemical compositions. For measurements located above 350 K, mixing of the tropospheric air in the subtropical stratosphere occurs over a period of a month, the origins of the tropospheric source being localised in the tropical UT and the tropical boundary layer. In the tropics, quantitative reconstructions of CO and O3 profiles above 360 K are obtained for one month back-trajectories calculations, pointing out that long term mixing is essential to determine the chemical composition in the tropical ascent. In particular, the existence of two-way meridional irreversible exchanges between 360 and 450 K is found to export tropical air in the subtropical stratosphere and to entrain old stratospheric air in the tropical ascent. Mean age of air calculated with a Lagrangian model is shown to be in agreement with the CO2 observations.
The Murray Research Center: A Center for the Study of Lives", Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, USA The Murray Research Center: A Center for the Study of Lives", Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, USA The Murray Research Center: A Center for the Study of Lives", Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Estados Unidos
Jacquelyn B. James
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2000,
Abstract: URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003301 URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003301 URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003301
Trust, Risk and Public History: A View from the United States
James B. Gardner
Public History Review , 2010,
Abstract: In the public history and museum communities today there is much difference of opinion over the concept of ‘radical trust,’ which basically argues for us to give up control and trust the public to develop content for our websites and exhibitions and provide direction for our work. Most public historians and curators are happy to share authority with the public, but are we now expected to yield all authority? Are we now taking historian Carl Becker’s well-known phrase ‘everyman his own historian’ and updating it to ‘every person his or her own curator’? What is the role of historical knowledge in a world of opinion? Unfortunately, at the same time that many of us are embracing risk online, in a world we have little control or even influence over, we seem to be stepping back from risk taking in our museums, on our own turf. We’ve become risk averse—afraid to make mistakes, afraid of trying new approaches and tackling the historically controversial or the ambiguous. Rather than the ‘safe place for unsafe ideas’ that Elaine Gurian proposed, we have become no more than safe places for safe ideas. We need to push back on both fronts. Public historians should be thought leaders, not followers—not wait to see what the future holds for us but rather try to shape that future.
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