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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 193685 matches for " Darren G. Craig "
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Markedly Increased High-Mobility Group Box 1 Protein in a Patient with Small-for-Size Syndrome
Darren G. Craig,Patricia Lee,E. Anne Pryde,Ernest Hidalgo,Peter C. Hayes,Stephen J. Wigmore,Stuart J. Forbes,Kenneth J. Simpson
Case Reports in Transplantation , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/272498
Abstract: Background. Small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) occurs in the presence of insufficient liver mass to maintain normal function after liver transplantation. Murine mortality following 85% hepatectomy can be reduced by the use of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) to scavenge damage-associated molecular patterns and prevent their engagement with membrane-bound RAGE. Aims. To explore serum levels of sRAGE, high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, and other soluble inflammatory mediators in a fatal case of SFSS. Methods. Serum levels of HMGB1, sRAGE, IL-18, and other inflammatory mediators were measured by ELISA in a case of SFSS, and the results were compared with 8 patients with paracetamol-induced acute liver failure (ALF) and 6 healthy controls (HC). Results. HMGB1 levels were markedly higher in the SFSS patient (92.1?ng/mL) compared with the ALF patients (median (IQR) 11.4 (3.7–14.8)?ng/mL) and HC (1.42 (1.38–1.56)?ng/mL). In contrast, sRAGE levels were lower in the SFSS patient (1.88?ng/mL) compared with the ALF patients (3.53 (2.66–12.37)?ng/mL) and were similar to HC levels (1.40 (1.23–1.89)?ng/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory innate immune pathways in SFSS. Modulation of the HMGB1-RAGE axis may represent a future therapeutic avenue in this condition. 1. Introduction The capacity for liver regeneration is finite, placing a restriction upon the minimum mass of liver tissue required to maintain hepatic function following split liver transplantation (LT) or liver resection. Small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) occurs in the presence of insufficient liver mass to maintain normal function and is characterised by severe graft dysfunction and increased ascites output [1]. The pathophysiology of SFSS is multifactorial, involving insufficient graft volume, poor graft quality, and excessive portal inflow [2]. Amplification of proinflammatory mediators in the remnant tissue is also recognised to play an important role in limiting liver regeneration [3]. Recent murine studies have suggested that a key pathway in this process involves the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a cell-surface multiligand pattern recognition receptor linked with amplification of the innate inflammatory response to cell death. Engagement of membrane-bound RAGE with ligands such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein sustains inflammatory responses and promotes apoptosis in the hepatic remnant following massive hepatectomy [4]. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE), the truncated extracellular domain of RAGE,
A disregard for calories during sampling: Exploring the “samples don’t count” effect  [PDF]
Chrissy M. Martins, Lauren G. Block, Darren W. Dahl
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.63032
Abstract: Product sampling is an important part of food retailing promotion. We explore how food sampling affects individuals’ total caloric estimates of a consumption episode. In a field study, at a small self-serve frozen yogurt store, 144 participants were randomly assigned to either a control or samples’ condition. Analysis of variance showed that individuals who had no or one sample overestimated the number of calories they were consuming, while those who had two or more samples underestimated their caloric intake.
Critical issues in recent developments in Reformational philosophy: a perspective1
Craig G. Bartholomew
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1995, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v60i2.628
Abstract: Although the present is a time of great opportunity for Reformational thinking and activity, some Reformational philosophers are proposing a reconstruction of the tradition at the foundational level. Consequently, the present can also he seen as a time of crisis for the tradition as a whole. Proposed shifts are examined in the foundational areas of creation order, the antithesis and the authority of Scripture. These shifts are related to understandings of our context and thus the nature of modernity/postmodernity and its connection to these shifts also receives attention.
Correlation of Inter-Locus Polyglutamine Toxicity with CAG?CTG Triplet Repeat Expandability and Flanking Genomic DNA GC Content
Colm E. Nestor, Darren G. Monckton
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028260
Abstract: Dynamic expansions of toxic polyglutamine (polyQ)-encoding CAG repeats in ubiquitously expressed, but otherwise unrelated, genes cause a number of late-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington disease and the spinocerebellar ataxias. As polyQ toxicity in these disorders increases with repeat length, the intergenerational expansion of unstable CAG repeats leads to anticipation, an earlier age-at-onset in successive generations. Crucially, disease associated alleles are also somatically unstable and continue to expand throughout the lifetime of the individual. Interestingly, the inherited polyQ length mediating a specific age-at-onset of symptoms varies markedly between disorders. It is widely assumed that these inter-locus differences in polyQ toxicity are mediated by protein context effects. Previously, we demonstrated that the tendency of expanded CAG?CTG repeats to undergo further intergenerational expansion (their ‘expandability’) also differs between disorders and these effects are strongly correlated with the GC content of the genomic flanking DNA. Here we show that the inter-locus toxicity of the expanded polyQ tracts of these disorders also correlates with both the expandability of the underlying CAG repeat and the GC content of the genomic DNA flanking sequences. Inter-locus polyQ toxicity does not correlate with properties of the mRNA or protein sequences, with polyQ location within the gene or protein, or steady state transcript levels in the brain. These data suggest that the observed inter-locus differences in polyQ toxicity are not mediated solely by protein context effects, but that genomic context is also important, an effect that may be mediated by modifying the rate at which somatic expansion of the DNA delivers proteins to their cytotoxic state.
Localized Advanced Hürthle Cell Carcinoma with Symptomatic Intrathoracic Goiter
Kabir Ahmed,Darren Swartz,Deepu Daniel,Craig Crespi,Andrew Rosenthal,Joseph DeCostanza
Case Reports in Surgery , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/623130
Abstract: Intrathoracic goiters are divided into two categories: primary and secondary. Intrathoracic goiters (IG) can cause upper airway obstruction. The presence of obstructive symptoms secondary to increased thyroid growth and tracheal compression is major indication for surgery; however, goiters do not always require immediate surgical attention. In addition, although some diagnostic tests indicate upper airway obstruction, many patients remain asymptomatic. Surgeries to remove IG are performed routinely however, they are not without risk. In some cases, intrathoracic goiters present as thyroid cancers. Very rare cancers such as Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) can create a challenge for the surgeon when surgical intervention is vital.
Plant DNA Barcodes Can Accurately Estimate Species Richness in Poorly Known Floras
Craig Costion, Andrew Ford, Hugh Cross, Darren Crayn, Mark Harrington, Andrew Lowe
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026841
Abstract: Background Widespread uptake of DNA barcoding technology for vascular plants has been slow due to the relatively poor resolution of species discrimination (~70%) and low sequencing and amplification success of one of the two official barcoding loci, matK. Studies to date have mostly focused on finding a solution to these intrinsic limitations of the markers, rather than posing questions that can maximize the utility of DNA barcodes for plants with the current technology. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we test the ability of plant DNA barcodes using the two official barcoding loci, rbcLa and matK, plus an alternative barcoding locus, trnH-psbA, to estimate the species diversity of trees in a tropical rainforest plot. Species discrimination accuracy was similar to findings from previous studies but species richness estimation accuracy proved higher, up to 89%. All combinations which included the trnH-psbA locus performed better at both species discrimination and richness estimation than matK, which showed little enhanced species discriminatory power when concatenated with rbcLa. The utility of the trnH-psbA locus is limited however, by the occurrence of intraspecific variation observed in some angiosperm families to occur as an inversion that obscures the monophyly of species. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate for the first time, using a case study, the potential of plant DNA barcodes for the rapid estimation of species richness in taxonomically poorly known areas or cryptic populations revealing a powerful new tool for rapid biodiversity assessment. The combination of the rbcLa and trnH-psbA loci performed better for this purpose than any two-locus combination that included matK. We show that although DNA barcodes fail to discriminate all species of plants, new perspectives and methods on biodiversity value and quantification may overshadow some of these shortcomings by applying barcode data in new ways.
Human cases of simultaneous echinococcosis and tuberculosis - significance and extent in China
Yu Yang, Darren J Gray, Magda K Ellis, Shu Yang, Philip S Craig, Donald P McManus
Parasites & Vectors , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-53
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) affects over five million people in China, 80 percent living in rural areas [1]. Community surveys in 1988-89 in rural townships of Xiji County in south Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), northwest China indicated a TB prevalence ranging from 0.6-12.4% (mean 2.2%) [2]. Helminthiases are also extremely common in China [3]. In Xiji, the prevalence of echinococcosis ranges from 0-7.4% (mean 2%) and from 1-8.1% (mean 2.5%) for the cystic (CE) and alveolar AE forms, respectively [4]. Given the similarities in their morbidities, specific diagnosis of TB and echinococcosis in co-infected individuals is difficult which may account for the limited number of reports of simultaneous infections globally [5].Retrospective community survey data for TB and echinococcosis [2,4] revealed co-endemic TB and echinococcosis in a number of townships within Xiji County. The range of TB prevalence (0.6-12.4%) in the TB/echinococcosis co-endemic townships was similar to that of the entire county [2] but the mean prevalence (3.9% v 2.2%) was significantly higher (Chi-square; P = 0.036). Prevalence of echinococcosis in the townships ranged from 0.8%-9% (mean 4.5%). It is noteworthy that while the surveys were up to 15 years apart, the incubation period for AE/CE is 10-15 years [6] and so primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Echinococcus infections would have been occurring at the same time.We describe two survey subjects with simultaneous echinococcosis and TB, representing the first such reports for China. Both subjects indicated by questionnaire having received Bacillus Calmette-Guerrin (BCG) vaccination during childhood, confirmed by a characteristic raised skin vaccination scar. Approval for the surveys was given by the Ethics Committee of Ningxia Medical College; written consent to participate was obtained from both patients.The first, an 18-year-old male reported to Xiji County Hospital in 2006 with malaise, weakness, fatigue and a minor cough. Ultrasound (US) and
Compact Multipurpose Mobile Laser Scanning System — Initial Tests and Results
Craig Glennie,Benjamin Brooks,Todd Ericksen,Darren Hauser,Kenneth Hudnut,James Foster,Jon Avery
Remote Sensing , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/rs5020521
Abstract: We describe a prototype compact mobile laser scanning system that may be operated from a backpack or unmanned aerial vehicle. The system is small, self-contained, relatively inexpensive, and easy to deploy. A description of system components is presented, along with the initial calibration of the multi-sensor platform. The first field tests of the system, both in backpack mode and mounted on a helium balloon for real-world applications are presented. For both field tests, the acquired kinematic LiDAR data are compared with highly accurate static terrestrial laser scanning point clouds. These initial results show that the vertical accuracy of the point cloud for the prototype system is approximately 4 cm (1σ) in balloon mode, and 3 cm (1σ) in backpack mode while horizontal accuracy was approximately 17 cm (1σ) for the balloon tests. Results from selected study areas on the Sacramento River Delta and San Andreas Fault in California demonstrate system performance, deployment agility and flexibility, and potential for operational production of high density and highly accurate point cloud data. Cost and production rate trade-offs place this system in the niche between existing airborne and tripod mounted LiDAR systems.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II: Photometry and Supernova Ia Light Curves from the 2005 data
Jon A. Holtzman,John Marriner,Richard Kessler,Masao Sako,Ben Dilday,Joshua A. Frieman,Donald P. Schneider,Bruce Bassett,Andrew Becker,David Cinabro,Fritz DeJongh,Darren L. Depoy,Mamoru Doi,Peter M. Garnavich,Craig J. Hogan,Saurabh Jha,Kohki Konishi,Hubert Lampeitl,Jennifer L. Marshall,David McGinnis,Gajus Miknaitis,Robert C. Nichol,Jose Luis Prieto,Adam G. Reiss,Michael W. Richmond,Roger Romani,Mathew Smith,Naohiro Takanashi,Kouichi Tokita,Kurt van der Heyden,Naoki Yasuda,Chen Zheng
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/136/6/2306
Abstract: We present ugriz light curves for 146 spectroscopically confirmed or spectroscopically probable Type Ia supernovae from the 2005 season of the SDSS-II Supernova survey. The light curves have been constructed using a photometric technique that we call scene modelling, which is described in detail here; the major feature is that supernova brightnesses are extracted from a stack of images without spatial resampling or convolution of the image data. This procedure produces accurate photometry along with accurate estimates of the statistical uncertainty, and can be used to derive photometry taken with multiple telescopes. We discuss various tests of this technique that demonstrate its capabilities. We also describe the methodology used for the calibration of the photometry, and present calibrated magnitudes and fluxes for all of the spectroscopic SNe Ia from the 2005 season.
Ensemble forecasting with a stochastic convective parametrization based on equilibrium statistics
P. Groenemeijer,G. C. Craig
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-4555-2012
Abstract: The stochastic Plant-Craig scheme for deep convection was implemented in the COSMO mesoscale model and used for ensemble forecasting. Ensembles consisting of 100 48-h forecasts at 7 km horizontal resolution were generated for a 2000×2000 km domain covering central Europe. Forecasts were made for seven case studies characterized by different large-scale meteorological environments. Each 100 member ensemble consisted of 10 groups of 10 members, with each group driven by boundary and initial conditions from a selected member from the global ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System. The precipitation variability within and among these groups of members was computed, and it was found that the relative contribution to the ensemble variance introduced by the stochastic convection scheme was substantial, amounting to as much as 76% of the total variance in the ensemble in one of the studied cases. The impact of the scheme was not confined to the grid scale, and typically contributed 25–50% of the total variance even after the precipitation fields had been smoothed to a resolution of 35 km. The variability of precipitation introduced by the scheme was approximately proportional to the total amount of convection that occurred, while the variability due to large-scale conditions changed from case to case, being highest in cases exhibiting strong mid-tropospheric flow and pronounced meso- to synoptic scale vorticity extrema. The stochastic scheme was thus found to be an important source of variability in precipitation cases of weak large-scale flow lacking strong vorticity extrema, but high convective activity.
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