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The Balanced Scorecard (BSC), a strategic performance management tool, is well received and
applied by many world organizations; however government organizations have not
really implemented it. Government management issue has no organic relationship
with system innovation, institutional reform and transformation of functions. There
is a lack of scientific and reasonable performance appraisal indicators for government
reform, let alone the improvement of the government management level. The study
was carried out to construct the Chinese government performance appraisal
system using the BSC method, which mainly in the aspect of financial perspective,
customer perspective, internal process perspective and learning and growth
perspective. The application and implementation of the BSC can be an important
measure of government management innovation, and plays an important role in the
process of function transition and administrative system reform.
Ben-Naim in three articles dismissed and “answered” the Levinthal’s paradox. He announces there are pitfalls caused by the “misinterpretation” of thermodynamic hypothesis. He claims no existence of Gibbs free energy formula where the variable is a protein’s conformation X . His Gibbs energy functional is G(T, P, N, P(R)), where the variable is probability distributions P (R) of the conformations. His “minimum distribution Peq” is wrong. By carefully establishing thermodynamic systems, we demonstrate how to apply quantum statistics to derive Gibbs free energy formula G(X). The formula of the folding force is given.