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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 204305 matches for " Daniele Sch?n "
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Orthographic Contamination of Broca’s Area
Marie Montant,Daniele Schn
Frontiers in Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00378
Abstract: Strong evidence has accumulated over the past years suggesting that orthography plays a role in spoken language processing. It is still unclear, however, whether the influence of orthography on spoken language results from a co-activation of posterior brain areas dedicated to low-level orthographic processing or whether it results from orthographic restructuring of phonological representations located in the anterior perisylvian speech network itself. To test these hypotheses, we ran a fMRI study that tapped orthographic processing in the visual and auditory modalities. As a marker for orthographic processing, we used the orthographic decision task in the visual modality and the orthographic consistency effect in the auditory modality. Results showed no specific orthographic activation neither for the visual nor the auditory modality in left posterior occipito-temporal brain areas that are thought to host the visual word form system. In contrast, specific orthographic activation was found both for the visual and auditory modalities at anterior sites belonging to the perisylvian region: the left dorsal–anterior insula and the left inferior frontal gyrus. These results are in favor of the restructuring hypothesis according to which learning to read acts like a “virus” that permanently contaminates the spoken language system.
Listening to the Human Voice Alters Sensorimotor Brain Rhythms
Yohana Lévêque, Daniele Schn
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080659
Abstract: While neuronal desynchronization in the mu (≈10Hz) and beta (≈20Hz) frequency bands has long been known to be an EEG index of sensorimotor activity, this method has rarely been employed to study auditory perception. In the present study, we measured mu and beta event-related desynchronisation (ERD) while participants were asked to listen to vocal and triangle-wave melodies and to sing them back. Results showed that mu and beta ERD began earlier and were stronger when listening to vocal compared to non-vocal melodies. Interestingly, this humanness effect was stronger for less accurate singers. These results show that voice perception favors an early involvement of motor representations.
Musical Expertise and Statistical Learning of Musical and Linguistic Structures
Daniele Schn,Clément Fran?ois
Frontiers in Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00167
Abstract: Adults and infants can use the statistical properties of syllable sequences to extract words from continuous speech. Here we present a review of a series of electrophysiological studies investigating (1) Speech segmentation resulting from exposure to spoken and sung sequences (2) The extraction of linguistic versus musical information from a sung sequence (3) Differences between musicians and non-musicians in both linguistic and musical dimensions. The results show that segmentation is better after exposure to sung compared to spoken material and moreover, that linguistic structure is better learned than the musical structure when using sung material. In addition, musical expertise facilitates the learning of both linguistic and musical structures. Finally, an electrophysiological approach, which directly measures brain activity, appears to be more sensitive than a behavioral one.
Words and Melody Are Intertwined in Perception of Sung Words: EEG and Behavioral Evidence
Reyna L. Gordon,Daniele Schn,Cyrille Magne,Corine Astésano,Mireille Besson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009889
Abstract: Language and music, two of the most unique human cognitive abilities, are combined in song, rendering it an ecological model for comparing speech and music cognition. The present study was designed to determine whether words and melodies in song are processed interactively or independently, and to examine the influence of attention on the processing of words and melodies in song. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) and behavioral data were recorded while non-musicians listened to pairs of sung words (prime and target) presented in four experimental conditions: same word, same melody; same word, different melody; different word, same melody; different word, different melody. Participants were asked to attend to either the words or the melody, and to perform a same/different task. In both attentional tasks, different word targets elicited an N400 component, as predicted based on previous results. Most interestingly, different melodies (sung with the same word) elicited an N400 component followed by a late positive component. Finally, ERP and behavioral data converged in showing interactions between the linguistic and melodic dimensions of sung words. The finding that the N400 effect, a well-established marker of semantic processing, was modulated by musical melody in song suggests that variations in musical features affect word processing in sung language. Implications of the interactions between words and melody are discussed in light of evidence for shared neural processing resources between the phonological/semantic aspects of language and the melodic/harmonic aspects of music.
Faster Sound Stream Segmentation in Musicians than in Nonmusicians
Clément Fran?ois, Florent Jaillet, Sylvain Takerkart, Daniele Schn
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101340
Abstract: The musician's brain is considered as a good model of brain plasticity as musical training is known to modify auditory perception and related cortical organization. Here, we show that music-related modifications can also extend beyond motor and auditory processing and generalize (transfer) to speech processing. Previous studies have shown that adults and newborns can segment a continuous stream of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli based only on probabilities of occurrence between adjacent syllables, tones or timbres. The paradigm classically used in these studies consists of a passive exposure phase followed by a testing phase. By using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures, we recently showed that adult musicians and musically trained children outperform nonmusicians in the test following brief exposure to an artificial sung language. However, the behavioural test does not allow for studying the learning process per se but rather the result of the learning. In the present study, we analyze the electrophysiological learning curves that are the ongoing brain dynamics recorded as the learning is taking place. While musicians show an inverted U shaped learning curve, nonmusicians show a linear learning curve. Analyses of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) allow for a greater understanding of how and when musical training can improve speech segmentation. These results bring evidence of enhanced neural sensitivity to statistical regularities in musicians and support the hypothesis of positive transfer of training effect from music to sound stream segmentation in general.
Inadvertently Placed Pacing Lead: A Case Reprot
Schn N
Journal für Kardiologie , 2007,
European Psychology Map
Psychology Science Quarterly , 2009,
Abstract: The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID) compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.
Some practical aspects of selecting dams of sires
N Baum, G Sch?nmuth
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1978, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-10-1-139b
Charge Transport in Voltage-Biased Superconducting Single-Electron Transistors
Jens Siewert,Gerd Schn
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.54.7421
Abstract: Charge is transported through superconducting SSS single-electron transistors at finite bias voltages by a combination of coherent Cooper-pair tunneling and quasiparticle tunneling. At low transport voltages the effect of an ``odd'' quasiparticle in the island leads to a $2e$-periodic dependence of the current on the gate charge. We evaluate the $I-V$ characteristic in the framework of a model which accounts for these effects as well as for the influence of the electromagnetic environment. The good agreement between our model calculation and experimental results demonstrates the importance of coherent Cooper-pair tunneling and parity effects.
Emergence of Skyrme crystal in Gross-Neveu and 't Hooft models at finite density
Verena Schn,Michael Thies
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.62.096002
Abstract: We study two-dimensional, large $N$ field theoretic models (Gross-Neveu model, 't Hooft model) at finite baryon density near the chiral limit. The same mechanism which leads to massless baryons in these models induces a breakdown of translational invariance at any finite density. In the chiral limit baryonic matter is characterized by a spatially varying chiral angle with a wave number depending only on the density. For small bare quark masses a sine-Gordon kink chain is obtained which may be regarded as simplest realization of the Skyrme crystal for nuclear matter. Characteristic differences between confining and non-confining models are pointed out.
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