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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2955 matches for " Daniele Radaelli "
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The Reality Monitoring Deficit as a Common Neuropsychological Correlate of Schizophrenic and Affective Psychosis
Daniele Radaelli,Francesco Benedetti,Roberto Cavallaro,Cristina Colombo,Enrico Smeraldi
Behavioral Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/bs3020244
Abstract: For many decades, Neuropsychological functioning has been a key point in the study of psychotic disorders. The main aim of these studies is to give a description of the neurocognitive “profile” of schizophrenia, with only little attention being paid to the common and discriminating features of different psychotic disorders. Recent studies support the hypothesis that patients affected by psychiatric disorders with psychotic symptoms have specific abnormalities of reality testing of ongoing perception, which become evident with source monitoring task. Ninety-eight patients and 50 controls were studied. Patients were divided by diagnosis and previous history of psychotic features and were administered Source Monitoring Task to test reality testing of ongoing perception. Frequencies of correct and false attributions were recorded. To obtain measures of observer sensitivity and response biases, a signal detection analysis was performed. Aims: Studying neuropsychological correlate of psychosis in euthymic mood disordered patients and patients with schizophrenia with or without delusions. Results: Patients with psychotic features use more lax criteria in evaluating self-generated, but not perceived stimuli compared to patients without psychotic features. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis of selective biases in reality monitoring as neuropsychological correlates of psychosis.
Different Neural Responses to a Moral Valence Decision Task in Unipolar and Bipolar Depression
Daniele Radaelli,Sara Dallaspezia,Sara Poletti,Enrico Smeraldi,Andrea Falini,Cristina Colombo,Francesco Benedetti
ISRN Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/568617
Abstract: Objectives. Patients affected by bipolar disorder (BP) and major depressive disorder (UP) share the susceptibility to experience depression and differ in their susceptibility to mania, but clinical studies suggest that the biological substrates of the two disorders could influence the apparently similar depressive phases. The few brain imaging studies available described different brain metabolic and neural correlates of UP and BP. Methods. We studied the BOLD neural response to a moral valence decision task targeting the depressive biases in information processing in 36 subjects (14 BP, 11 UP, and 11 controls). Results. Main differences between UP and controls and between UP and BP were detected in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, BA 47). Neural responses of BP patients differed from those of control subjects in multiple brain areas, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial PFC, bilateral dorsolateral PFC, temporal cortex and insula, and parietal and occipital cortex. Conclusions. Our results are in agreement with hypotheses of dysfunctions in corticolimbic circuitries regulating affects and emotions in mood disorders and suggest that specific abnormalities, particularly in ventrolateral PFC, are not the same in UP and BP depression. 1. Objective Though grouped in the “mood disorders” section of DSM, primary depressive disorder (unipolar depression, UP) and bipolar disorder (BP) show clearly distinctive features, most strikingly because patients share the possibility of experiencing major depression but differ in the susceptibility for mania. Several findings suggest a biological basis for this difference. Genetic studies confirmed overlapping in the heritability of the two disorders but showed also that approximately 71% of the genetic influence on liability to mania is distinct from the genetic liability to depression [1]. The occurrence of mania seems to be related to alterations in dopaminergic function [2, 3], with CSF homovanillic levels raising before the switch into manic phase [4] and urinary dopamine levels predicting manic mood [5], and it is then hypothesized that the biological mechanisms leading to these changes should be specific of BP. Treatment options for UP and BP patients are different [6]. A lack of pharmaceutical trials comparing UP and BP prevents definite conclusions, but current opinions suggest different strategies for the treatment of BP and UP depression [7–9], and the clinical evidence is that BP patients experience depressive episodes that are more numerous and less responsive to antidepressant drug
Characteristics of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Young Children before the Introduction of PCV13 in Lombardy, Italy  [PDF]
Giovanni Radaelli, Enrica Riva, Marcello Giovannini
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2012.23018
Abstract: An active surveillance system of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) started on September 2008 in Lombardy, Italy, among children aged less than 60 months and admitted for suspicion of IPD at emergency room of ten hospitals. This study examined the clinical characteristics of children enrolled up to December 2010, that is just before the introduction in this region of voluntary mass vaccination, free of charge, based on the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Two hundred fifty one children were suspected and 20 were confirmed as having IPD, based on isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood. Thirty-nine percent of children had received pneumococcal vaccination previously, and full vaccination with three doses of hepta-valent vaccine (PCV7) had been administered in 21.4%. Co-morbidity conditions were more frequent in children with confirmed than non-confirmed IPD (10.0% vs. 0.9%). The annual incidence rate of confirmed IPD was 28.6/100,000 (binomial 95% confidence interval, 18.6 to 44.1/100,000. Among confirmed IPD children, 11 exhibited pneumonia with bacteremia, 6 bacteremia without focus, 2 septicemia, 1 meningitis. Seventeen (85%) isolates were identified, and nine serotypes. The overall serotype coverage was 29.4% for PCV7 and 82.3% for PCV13. In non-vaccinated children, the coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 was 41.7% and 75.0%, respectively. Non-vaccine serotypes 12B, 15C, and 23B were identified. Antibiotic resistance was found in seven children, that is against penicillin (serotype 15C), erythromycin (14, 19A, 19F), tetracycline (15C, 19F), chloramphenicol (23F), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (23F). Two of these children had received antibiotic therapy (penicillin or azithromycin) during the week before hospital admission. The coverage vaccination rate in Lombardy was relatively low during the surveillance period and serotype distribution widespread. The introduction of PCV13 and a mass vaccination program in young children might impact positively on invasive pneumococcal disease in this surveilled population. Active long-term surveillance of non-vaccine serotypes is required wordwide.
Metodologia ABC: implanta??o numa microempresa
Duran, Orlando;Radaelli, Lucas;
Gest?o & Produ??o , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-530X2000000200003
Abstract: this paper presents an implementation of the activity based costing (abc) methodology in a small firm. the approach presented is intended to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the abc methodology at any sized firm, only through few adaptations for ensuring low investments fees and speed in obtaining results and information from the system. discussion about the results obtained during the implementation case are presented and the potential of using the information generated from the system as a managing tool is commented.
Europeanisation: Solution or problem?
Claudio M. Radaelli
European Integration Online Papers , 2004,
Abstract: Is there something new in recent research on Europeanisation? Or should we go back to what we already know about political integration in Europe and avoid the term? This article reviews recent work in four steps: the identification of the specific domain of Europeanisation; the relationship between Europeanisation, on the one hand, and governance, institutions, and discourse, on the other; the methodological problems and the models emerging in this new field of research; and an assessment of the results arising out of theoretical and empirical research. One theme throughout the article is that, in order to develop a progressive agenda, Europeanisation should be seen as a problem, not as a solution. It is neither a new theory, nor an ad-hoc approach. Rather, it is a way of orchestrating existing concepts and to contribute to cumulative research in political science. Europeanisation does not provide any simple fix to theoretical or empirical problems. Quite the opposite, it can deliver if approached as a set of puzzles. A problem in search of explanation not the explanation itself (Gualini 2003). The conclusion is that Europeanisation has contributed to the emergence of new insights, original explanations, and interesting questions on three important issues: the understanding and analysis of 'impact', how to endogeneise international governance in models of domestic politics, and the relationship between agency and change. These three issues are prominent in the research agendas of international relations, theoretical policy analysis, and comparative politics. To contribute to major issues at the core of political science is a valuable result for a relatively new field of inquiry.
Whither Europeanization? Concept stretching and substantive change
Claudio M. Radaelli
European Integration Online Papers , 2000,
Abstract: This paper discusses the concept of Europeanization in the light of recent research on the impact of the European Union politics and policy. Conceptual analysis is preliminary to empirical analysis. Accordingly, I examine the risk of concept stretching , discuss extension and intension of Europeanization, and propose a taxonomy to unpack the concept and organize empirical research. The explanation of Europeanization is based on mechanisms and variables that need further exploration, but some preliminary results are presented here. Further research should concentrate on the policy level (and its interaction with macro-structures) and seek cross-fertilization with theoretical policy analysis and international relations, thus avoiding the risk of intellectual segregation.
Europeanisation: Solution or problem?
Claudio M. Radaelli
European Integration Online Papers , 2004,
Abstract: Is there something new in recent research on Europeanisation? Or should we go back to what we already know about political integration in Europe and avoid the term? This article reviews recent work in four steps: the identification of the specific domain of Europeanisation; the relationship between Europeanisation, on the one hand, and governance, institutions, and discourse, on the other; the methodological problems and the models emerging in this new field of research; and an assessment of the results arising out of theoretical and empirical research. One theme throughout the article is that, in order to develop a progressive agenda, Europeanisation should be seen as a problem, not as a solution. It is neither a new theory, nor an ad-hoc approach. Rather, it is a way of orchestrating existing concepts and to contribute to cumulative research in political science. Europeanisation does not provide any simple fix to theoretical or empirical problems. Quite the opposite, it can deliver if approached as a set of puzzles. A problem in search of explanation not the explanation itself (Gualini 2003). The conclusion is that Europeanisation has contributed to the emergence of new insights, original explanations, and interesting questions on three important issues: the understanding and analysis of 'impact', how to endogeneise international governance in models of domestic politics, and the relationship between agency and change. These three issues are prominent in the research agendas of international relations, theoretical policy analysis, and comparative politics. To contribute to major issues at the core of political science is a valuable result for a relatively new field of inquiry.
A Neutron diffraction study of multiferroics RMn2O5
P. G. Radaelli,L. C. Chapon
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/20/43/434213
Abstract: The magnetic properties of RMn2O5 multiferrroics as obtained by unpolarized and polarized neutron diffraction experiments are reviewed. We discuss the qualitative features of the magnetic phase diagram both in zero magnetic field and in field and analyze the commensurate magnetic structure and its coupling to an applied electric field. The origin of ferrolectricity is discussed based on calculations of the ferroelectric polarization predicted by different microscopic coupling mechanisms (exchange striction and cycloidal spin-orbit models). A minimal model containing a small set of parameters is also presented in order to understand the propagation of the magnetic structure along the c-direction.
Structural phenomena associated with the spin-state transition in LaCoO3
Paolo G. Radaelli,Sang-Wook Cheong
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.094408
Abstract: The structural properties of LaCoO3 were studied by means of high-resolution neutron powder diffraction in the temperature range 5
Symmetry constraints on the electrical polarization in novel multiferroic materials
P. G. Radaelli,L. C. Chapon
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.054428
Abstract: The symmetry conditions for the development of a macroscopic electrical polarization as a secondary order parameter to a magnetic ordering transition, and the constraints on the direction of the polarization vector, are determined by a non-conventional application of the theory of irreducible co-representations. In our approach, which is suitable for both magnetic and structural modulations, anti-unitary operators are employed to describe symmetry operations that exchange the propagation vector $\textbf{k}$ with $\textbf{-k}$, rather than operations combined with time-reversal as in classical \textit{corep} analysis. Unlike the conventional irreducible representations, co-representations can capture the full symmetry properties of the system even if the propagation vector is in the interior of the Brillouin zone. It is shown that ferroelectricity can develop even for a completely collinear structure, and that helical and cycloidal magnetic structures are not always polar. In some cases, symmetry allows the development of polarization parallel to the magnetic propagation vector. Our analysis also highlights the unique importance of magnetic commensurability, enabling one to derive the different symmetry properties of equivalent commensurate and incommensurate phases even for a completely generic propagation vector.
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