Abstract:
This paper addresses self-localization of stationary sensor networks based on inter-neighbor bearings and anchor nodes whose locations are known. In our work, we formulate the bearing-only network localization problem as a linear least-squares problem and consider measurement models with and without errors. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the localizability of a network with both algebraic and rigidity theoretic interpretations. The proposed conditions fully describe the relationship between the localizability and the bearing rigidity properties of a network. We also analyze the sensitivity of the localization problem to constant measurement errors. Upper bounds for the localization error and the bearing errors that a network can tolerate are presented. Finally, we propose distributed protocols to globally localize bearing-only networks. All the results presented in the paper are applicable to networks in arbitrary dimensions. This work is validated with numerical simulations.

Abstract:
A fundamental problem that the bearing rigidity theory studies is to determine when a framework can be uniquely determined up to a translation and a scaling factor by its inter-neighbor bearings. While many previous works focused on the bearing rigidity of two-dimensional frameworks, a first contribution of this paper is to extend these results to arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that a framework in an arbitrary dimension can be uniquely determined up to a translation and a scaling factor by the bearings if and only if the framework is infinitesimally bearing rigid. In this paper, the proposed bearing rigidity theory is further applied to the bearing-only formation stabilization problem where the target formation is defined by inter-neighbor bearings and the feedback control uses only bearing measurements. Nonlinear distributed bearing-only formation control laws are proposed for the cases with and without a global orientation. It is proved that the control laws can almost globally stabilize infinitesimally bearing rigid formations. Numerical simulations are provided to support the analysis.

Abstract:
This paper studies the problem of stabilizing target formations specified by inter-neighbor bearings with relative position measurements. While the undirected case has been studied in the existing works, this paper focuses on the case where the interaction topology is directed. It is shown that a linear distributed control law, which was proposed previously for undirected cases, can still be applied to the directed case. The formation stability in the directed case, however, relies on a new notion termed bearing persistence, which describes whether or not the directed underlying graph is persistent with the bearing rigidity of a formation. If a target formation is not bearing persistent, undesired equilibriums will appear and global formation stability cannot be guaranteed. The notion of bearing persistence is defined by the bearing Laplacian matrix and illustrated by simulation examples.

Abstract:
This paper studies the distributed control and estimation of multi-agent systems based on bearing information. In particular, we consider two problems: (i) the distributed control of bearing-constrained formations using relative position measurements and (ii) the distributed localization of sensor networks using bearing measurements. Both of the two problems are considered in arbitrary dimensional spaces. The analyses of the two problems rely on the recently developed bearing rigidity theory. We show that the two problems have the same mathematical formulation and can be solved by identical protocols. The proposed controller and estimator can globally solve the two problems without ambiguity. The results are supported with illustrative simulations.

Abstract:
This paper studies the problem of multi-agent formation maneuver control where both of the centroid and scale of a formation are required to track given velocity references while maintaining the formation shape. Unlike the conventional approaches where the target formation is defined by inter-neighbor relative positions or distances, we propose a bearing-based approach where the target formation is defined by inter-neighbor bearings. Due to the invariance of the bearings, the bearing-based approach provides a natural solution to formation scale control. We assume the dynamics of each agent as a single integrator and propose a globally stable proportional-integral formation maneuver control law. It is shown that at least two leaders are required to collaborate in order to control the centroid and scale of the formation whereas the followers are not required to have access to any global information, such as the velocities of the leaders.

Abstract:
This paper studies distributed maneuver control of multi-agent formations in arbitrary dimensions. The objective is to control the translation and scale of the formation while maintaining the desired formation pattern. Unlike conventional approaches where the target formation is defined by relative positions or distances, we propose a novel bearing-based approach where the target formation is defined by inter-neighbor bearings. Since the bearings are invariant to the translation and scale of the formation, the bearing-based approach provides a simple solution to the problem of translational and scaling formation maneuver control. Linear formation control laws for double-integrator dynamics are proposed and the global formation stability is analyzed. This paper also studies bearing-based formation control in the presence of practical problems including input disturbances, acceleration saturation, and collision avoidance. The theoretical results are illustrated with numerical simulations.

Abstract:
This work considers the robustness of uncertain consensus networks. The first set of results studies the stability properties of consensus networks with negative edge weights. We show that if either the negative weight edges form a cut in the graph, or any single negative edge weight has magnitude less than the inverse of the effective resistance between the two incident nodes, then the resulting network is unstable. These results are then applied to analyze the robustness properties of the consensus network with additive but bounded perturbations of the edge weights. It is shown that the small-gain condition is related again to cuts in the graph and effective resistance. For the single edge case, the small-gain condition is also shown to be exact. The results are then extended to consensus networks with non-linear couplings.

Abstract:
This work explores the definiteness of the weighted graph Laplacian matrix with negative edge weights. The definiteness of the weighted Laplacian is studied in terms of certain matrices that are related via congruent and similarity transformations. For a graph with a single negative weight edge, we show that the weighted Laplacian becomes indefinite if the magnitude of the negative weight is less than the inverse of the effective resistance between the two incident nodes. This result is extended to multiple negative weight edges. The utility of these results are demonstrated in a weighted consensus network where appropriately placed negative weight edges can induce a clustering behavior for the protocol.

Abstract:
This work considers the problem of estimating the unscaled relative positions of a multi-robot team in a common reference frame from bearing-only measurements. Each robot has access to a relative bearing measurement taken from the local body frame of the robot, and the robots have no knowledge of a common or inertial reference frame. A corresponding extension of rigidity theory is made for frameworks embedded in the \emph{special Euclidean group} $SE(2) = \mathbb{R}^2 \times \mathcal{S}^1$. We introduce definitions describing rigidity for $SE(2)$ frameworks and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for when such a framework is \emph{infinitesimally rigid} in $SE(2)$. Analogous to the rigidity matrix for point formations, we introduce the \emph{directed bearing rigidity matrix} and show that an $SE(2)$ framework is infinitesimally rigid if and only if the rank of this matrix is equal to $2|\mathcal{V}|-4$, where $|\mathcal{V}|$ is the number of agents in the ensemble. The directed bearing rigidity matrix and its properties are then used in the implementation and convergence proof of a distributed estimator to determine the {unscaled}{} relative positions in a common frame. Some simulation results are also given to support the analysis.

Abstract:
This paper presents a class of passivity-based cooperative control problems that have an explicit connection to convex network optimization problems. The new notion of maximal equilibrium independent passivity is introduced and it is shown that networks of systems possessing this property asymptotically approach the solutions of a dual pair of network optimization problems, namely an optimal potential and an optimal flow problem. This connection leads to an interpretation of the dynamic variables, such as system inputs and outputs, to variables in a network optimization framework, such as divergences and potentials, and reveals that several duality relations known in convex network optimization theory translate directly to passivity-based cooperative control problems. The presented results establish a strong and explicit connection between passivity-based cooperative control theory on the one side and network optimization theory on the other, and they provide a unifying framework for network analysis and optimal design. The results are illustrated on a nonlinear traffic dynamics model that is shown to be asymptotically clustering.