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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 162586 matches for " Daniel V?stfj?ll "
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Emotional Reactions to Sounds without Meaning  [PDF]
Daniel Vstfjll
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.38091
Abstract: The present research examined the relationship between emotional reactions to sounds without meaning (tone and noise complexes) and objective sound descriptors. Two experiments showed that the core affect dimensions valence and activation were related to perceived loudness (intensity) and sharpness (perceived high frequency content), respectively. These results can be used as design criteria for emotion induction with sounds, implementation of emotional sounds in products, as well as in research on environmental noise perception.
Emotional Reactions to Tonal and Noise Components of Environmental Sounds  [PDF]
Daniel Vstfjll
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.412153
Abstract:

In the present study, a two-dimensional model of human emotional reactions is used to predict auditory perception. The models’ discriminant validity is tested in an experiment where one group of participants use a two-dimensional emotion measure to rate their reactions to sounds systematically varied in tone and noise spectral level content. Another group of participants rated the same sounds using a standard one-dimensional annoyance measure. The results showed that both the one- and two-dimensional measures discriminated between reactions to different sounds. Regression analyses showed that the two-dimensional measure tapped aspects of human experience not covered by the annoyance measure. In addition, it was shown that only modifications of the fundamental frequency and the overall noise spectral level, but not modifications of harmonics, had a marked effect on emotional reactions. The implications of these findings for both auditory emotion research and noise control engineering are discussed.

Perception of Loudness Is Influenced by Emotion
Erkin Asutay, Daniel Vstfjll
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038660
Abstract: Loudness perception is thought to be a modular system that is unaffected by other brain systems. We tested the hypothesis that loudness perception can be influenced by negative affect using a conditioning paradigm, where some auditory stimuli were paired with aversive experiences while others were not. We found that the same auditory stimulus was reported as being louder, more negative and fear-inducing when it was conditioned with an aversive experience, compared to when it was used as a control stimulus. This result provides support for an important role of emotion in auditory perception.
Compassion Fade: Affect and Charity Are Greatest for a Single Child in Need
Daniel Vstfjll, Paul Slovic, Marcus Mayorga, Ellen Peters
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100115
Abstract: Charitable giving in 2013 exceeded $300 billion, but why do we respond to some life-saving causes while ignoring others? In our first two studies, we demonstrated that valuation of lives is associated with affective feelings (self-reported and psychophysiological) and that a decline in compassion may begin with the second endangered life. In Study 3, this fading of compassion was reversed by describing multiple lives in a more unitary fashion. Study 4 extended our findings to loss-frame scenarios. Our capacity to feel sympathy for people in need appears limited, and this form of compassion fatigue can lead to apathy and inaction, consistent with what is seen repeatedly in response to many large-scale human and environmental catastrophes.
I-Space: The Effects of Emotional Valence and Source of Music on Interpersonal Distance
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Galini Pantelidou, Pawel Rebacz, Daniel Vstfjll, Manos Tsakiris
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026083
Abstract: Background The ubiquitous use of personal music players in over-crowded public transport alludes to the hypothesis that apart from making the journey more pleasant, listening to music through headphones may also affect representations of our personal space, that is, the emotionally-tinged zone around the human body that people feel is “their space”. We evaluated the effects of emotional valence (positive versus negative) and source (external, i.e. loudspeakers, versus embedded, i.e. headphones) of music on the participant's interpersonal distance when interacting with others. Methodology/Principal Findings Personal space was evaluated as the comfort interpersonal distance between participant and experimenter during both active and passive approach tasks. Our results show that, during passive approach tasks, listening to positive versus negative emotion-inducing music reduces the representation of personal space, allowing others to come closer to us. With respect to a no-music condition, an embedded source of positive emotion-inducing music reduced personal space, while an external source of negative emotion-inducing music expanded personal space. Conclusions/Significance The results provide the first empirical evidence of the relation between induced emotional state, as a result of listening to positive music through headphones, and personal space when interacting with others. This research might help to understand the benefit that people find in using personal music players in crowded situations, such as when using the public transport in urban settings.
El uso de reproductores portátiles de música ayuda a reducir nuestro espacio personal
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez,Galini Pantelidou,Pawel Rebacz,Daniel Vstfjll
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2012,
Abstract: Cuánto se nos puede acercar un extra o antes de que empecemos a sentirnos incómodos? De acuerdo con un reciente estudio de nuestro grupo, usar auriculares para escuchar música que induce emociones positivas puede reducir los límites de nuestro espacio personal, ese espacio que rodea nuestro cuerpo y que sentimos como “nuestro”, y así hacer más tolerable el que otros invadan este espacio. Los resultados de este estudio revelan el beneficio que conlleva usar reproductores portátiles de música en situaciones de aglomeración de gente como, por ejemplo, al usar el transporte público en grandes ciudades.
Spin dynamics of the bilinear-biquadratic $S=1$ Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice: a quantum Monte Carlo study
Annika Vll,Stefan Wessel
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.165128
Abstract: We study thermodynamic properties as well as the dynamical spin and quadrupolar structure factors of the O(3)-symmetric spin-1 Heisenberg model with bilinear-biquadratic exchange interactions on the triangular lattice. Based on a sign-problem-free quantum Monte Carlo approach, we access both the ferromagnetic and the ferroquadrupolar ordered, spin nematic phase as well as the SU(3)-symmetric point which separates these phases. Signatures of Goldstone soft-modes in the dynamical spin and the quadrupolar structure factors are identified, and the properties of the low-energy excitations are compared to the thermodynamic behavior observed at finite temperatures as well as to Schwinger-boson flavor-wave theory.
Correlation between lamivudine plasma concentrations and patient self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment in experienced HIV patients
Minzi OM, Mugoyela V, Gustafsson LL
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S23625
Abstract: rrelation between lamivudine plasma concentrations and patient self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment in experienced HIV patients Original Research (1590) Total Article Views Authors: Minzi OM, Mugoyela V, Gustafsson LL Published Date November 2011 Volume 2011:7 Pages 441 - 446 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S23625 OM Minzi1, V Mugoyela2, LL Gustafsson3 1Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden Background: Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is important to achieve treatment success in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Most HIV clinics apply the patient self-report (PSR) method. However, the reliability of this method in experienced HIV patients remains questionable. Purpose: To validate the PSR method for measuring adherence to ART using lamivudine (3TC) plasma concentrations in experienced HIV patients. Methods: The study was conducted in Dar Es Salaam and involved 220 patients who were receiving ART services at HIV clinics for more than 12 months. Self-reported adherence information to ART was obtained on the day of HIV clinic visit. The patients were asked to mention the number of doses missed within the past 7 days. In addition, blood samples (2 mL) were collected from each patient on the same day. The blood samples were determined for 3TC plasma concentrations. The target 3TC plasma concentration as indicator concentration for adherent patients was determined in 20 patients who took their evening dose of antiretrovirals under supervision. The blood from these patients was drawn 3 hours after drug administration. Results: Complete drug levels of 3TC and self-reported adherence data was obtained in 200 treatment-experienced HIV patients. Lamivudine plasma concentrations obtained in these patients ranged between 0.02–17.36 μg/mL. The mean time from dose administration to blood drawing was 3.1 ± 1.2 hours with coefficient of variation >39%. The mean 3TC plasma concentration obtained in 20 patients who took their antiretroviral dose under supervision was found to be 0.67 ± 0.46 μg/mL, range 0.25–2.33 μg/mL. As many as 82.5% of experienced HIV patients had PSRs in agreement with their 3TC plasma concentrations. Conclusion: PSR adherence is still a valid method for ascertaining adherence to ART in treatment-experienced HIV patients.
Correlation between lamivudine plasma concentrations and patient self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment in experienced HIV patients
Minzi OM,Mugoyela V,Gustafsson LL
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2011,
Abstract: OM Minzi1, V Mugoyela2, LL Gustafsson31Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is important to achieve treatment success in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Most HIV clinics apply the patient self-report (PSR) method. However, the reliability of this method in experienced HIV patients remains questionable.Purpose: To validate the PSR method for measuring adherence to ART using lamivudine (3TC) plasma concentrations in experienced HIV patients.Methods: The study was conducted in Dar Es Salaam and involved 220 patients who were receiving ART services at HIV clinics for more than 12 months. Self-reported adherence information to ART was obtained on the day of HIV clinic visit. The patients were asked to mention the number of doses missed within the past 7 days. In addition, blood samples (2 mL) were collected from each patient on the same day. The blood samples were determined for 3TC plasma concentrations. The target 3TC plasma concentration as indicator concentration for adherent patients was determined in 20 patients who took their evening dose of antiretrovirals under supervision. The blood from these patients was drawn 3 hours after drug administration.Results: Complete drug levels of 3TC and self-reported adherence data was obtained in 200 treatment-experienced HIV patients. Lamivudine plasma concentrations obtained in these patients ranged between 0.02–17.36 μg/mL. The mean time from dose administration to blood drawing was 3.1 ± 1.2 hours with coefficient of variation >39%. The mean 3TC plasma concentration obtained in 20 patients who took their antiretroviral dose under supervision was found to be 0.67 ± 0.46 μg/mL, range 0.25–2.33 μg/mL. As many as 82.5% of experienced HIV patients had PSRs in agreement with their 3TC plasma concentrations.Conclusion: PSR adherence is still a valid method for ascertaining adherence to ART in treatment-experienced HIV patients.Keywords: patient self-report, adherence, experienced HIV patients, lamivudine plasma concentrations
Lyme neuroborreliosis in HIV-1 positive men successfully treated with oral doxycycline: a case series and literature review
Daniel Bremell, Christer S?ll, Magnus Gisslén, Lars Hagberg
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-465
Abstract: We present four patients with concomitant presence of HIV-1 infection and Lyme neuroborreliosis diagnosed in Western Sweden. Patient 1 was a 60-year-old Caucasian man with radicular pain and cognitive impairment. Patient 2 was a 39-year-old Caucasian man with headaches, leg weakness, and pontine infarction. Patient 3 was a 62-year-old Caucasian man with headaches, tremor, vertigo, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Patient 4 was a 50-year-old Caucasian man with radicular pain and peripheral facial palsy. Patients one, two, and three all had subnormal levels of CD4 cells, indicating impaired immunity. All patients were treated with oral doxycycline with good clinical outcome and normalization of CSF pleocytosis.Given the low HIV-1 prevalence and medium incidence of Lyme neuroborreliosis in Western Sweden where these four cases were diagnosed, co-infection with HIV-1 and Borrelia is probably more common than previously thought. The three patients that were the most immunocompromised suffered from more severe and rather atypical neurological symptoms than are usually described among patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis. It is therefore important for doctors treating HIV patients to consider Lyme neuroborreliosis in a patient presenting with atypical neurological symptoms. All four patients were treated with oral doxycycline with a good outcome, further proving the efficacy of this regime.Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is the most common bacterial central nervous system (CNS) infection in the temperate parts of the northern hemisphere. European LNB most often presents as a painful meningoradiculoneuritis, with or without facial palsy or other cranial neuritis (Garin-Bujadoux-Bannwarth syndrome). More uncommon symptoms include deficits of other cranial nerves, myelitis and encephalitis [1].To date, only five single cases of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -1 and LNB have been published [2-6], all of whom were treated with intravenous third-generation cep
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