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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32885 matches for " Daniel Straub "
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Reliability updating with equality information
Daniel Straub
Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.probengmech.2010.08.003
Abstract: In many instances, information on engineering systems can be obtained through measurements, monitoring or direct observations of system performances and can be used to update the system reliability estimate. In structural reliability analysis, such information is expressed either by inequalities (e.g. for the observation that no defect is present) or by equalities (e.g. for quantitative measurements of system characteristics). When information Z is of the equality type, the a-priori probability of Z is zero and most structural reliability methods (SRM) are not directly applicable to the computation of the updated reliability. Hitherto, the computation of the reliability of engineering systems conditional on equality information was performed through first- and second order approximations. In this paper, it is shown how equality information can be transformed into inequality information, which enables reliability updating by solving a standard structural system reliability problem. This approach enables the use of any SRM, including those based on simulation, for reliability updating with equality information. It is demonstrated on three numerical examples, including an application to fatigue reliability.
Bayesian Network Enhanced with Structural Reliability Methods: Methodology
Daniel Straub,Armen Der Kiureghian
Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000173
Abstract: We combine Bayesian networks (BNs) and structural reliability methods (SRMs) to create a new computational framework, termed enhanced Bayesian network (eBN), for reliability and risk analysis of engineering structures and infrastructure. BNs are efficient in representing and evaluating complex probabilistic dependence structures, as present in infrastructure and structural systems, and they facilitate Bayesian updating of the model when new information becomes available. On the other hand, SRMs enable accurate assessment of probabilities of rare events represented by computationally demanding, physically-based models. By combining the two methods, the eBN framework provides a unified and powerful tool for efficiently computing probabilities of rare events in complex structural and infrastructure systems in which information evolves in time. Strategies for modeling and efficiently analyzing the eBN are described by way of several conceptual examples. The companion paper applies the eBN methodology to example structural and infrastructure systems.
Bayesian Network Enhanced with Structural Reliability Methods: Application
Daniel Straub,Armen Der Kiureghian
Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000170
Abstract: The enhanced Bayesian network (eBN) methodology described in the companion paper facilitates the assessment of reliability and risk of engineering systems when information about the system evolves in time. We present the application of the eBN (a) to the assessment of the life-cycle reliability of a structural system, (b) to the optimization of a decision on performing measurements in that structural system, and (c) to the risk assessment of an infrastructure system subject to natural hazards and deterioration of constituent structures. In all applications, observations of system performances or the hazards are made at various points in time and the eBN efficiently includes these observations in the analysis to provide an updated probabilistic model of the system at all times.
The genome of the endophytic bacterium H. frisingense GSF30T identifies diverse strategies in the Herbaspirillum genus to interact with plants
Daniel Straub,Anton Hartmann,Uwe Ludewig
Frontiers in Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00168
Abstract: The diazotrophic, bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30T has been identified in biomass grasses grown in temperate climate, including the highly nitrogen-efficient grass Miscanthus. Its genome was annotated and compared with related Herbaspirillum species from diverse habitats, including H. seropedicae, and further well-characterized endophytes. The analysis revealed that Herbaspirillum frisingense lacks a type III secretion system that is present in some related Herbaspirillum grass endophytes. Together with the lack of components of the type II secretion system, the genomic inventory indicates distinct interaction scenarios of endophytic Herbaspirillum strains with plants. Differences in respiration, carbon, nitrogen and cell wall metabolism among Herbaspirillum isolates partially correlate with their different habitats. Herbaspirillum frisingense is closely related to strains isolated from the rhizosphere of phragmites and from well water, but these lack nitrogen fixation and metabolism genes. Within grass endophytes, the high diversity in their genomic inventory suggests that even individual plant species provide distinct, highly diverse metabolic niches for successful endophyte-plant associations.
Model Based Data Transmission: Analysis of Link Budget Requirement Reduction  [PDF]
Jeremy Straub
Communications and Network (CN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2012.44032
Abstract: Communications capability can be a significant constraint on the utility of a spacecraft. While conventionally enhanced through the use of a larger transmitting or receiving antenna or through augmenting transmission power, communications capability can also be enhanced via incorporating more data in every unit of transmission. Model Based Transmission Reduction (MBTR) increases the mission utility of spacecraft via sending higher-level messages which rely on preshared (or, in some cases, co-transmitted) data. Because of this a priori knowledge, the amount of information contained in a MBTR message significantly exceeds the amount the amount of information in a conventional message. MBTR has multiple levels of operation; the lowest, Model Based Data Transmission (MBDT), utilizes a pre-shared lower-resolution data frame, which is augmented in areas of significant discrepancy with data from the higher-resolution source. MBDT is examined, in detail, herein and several approaches to minimizing the required bandwidth for conveying data required to conform to a minimum level of accuracy are considered. Also considered are ways of minimizing transmission requirements when both a model and change data required to attain a desired minimum discrepancy threshold must be transmitted. These possible solutions are compared to alternate transmission techniques including several forms of image compression.
Application of Model-Based Data Transmission Techniques to Gravitational Model Data  [PDF]
Jeremy Straub
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2013.13007

The transmission of scientific data over long distances is required to enable interplanetary science expeditions. Current approaches include transmitting all collected data or transmitting low resolution data to enable ground controller review and selection of data for transmission. Model-based data transmission (MBDT) seeks to increase the amount of knowledge conveyed per unit of data transmitted by comparing high-resolution data collected in situ to a pre-existing (or potentially co-transmitted) model. This paper describes the application of MBDT to gravitational data and characterizes its utility and performance. This is performed by applying the MBDT technique to a selection of gravitational data previously collected for the Earth and comparing the transmission requirements to the level required for raw data transmis-sion and non-application-aware compression. Levels of transmission reduction up to 31.8% (without the use maximum-error-thresholding) and up to 97.17% (with the use of maximum-error-thresholding) resulted. These levels significantly exceed what is possible with non-application-aware compression.

Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus
Marco Giovannetti, Raffaella Balestrini, Veronica Volpe, Mike Guether, Daniel Straub, Alex Costa, Uwe Ludewig, Paola Bonfante
BMC Plant Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-12-186
Abstract: A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells.Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis.Knowledge has increased concerning the fact that a plant does not act as an individual on its own, but as an actor in a vast stage populated by bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms [1-3]. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi represent one of the most important components of the complex root-plant microbiome, since they are present in about 80% of vascular plants. They supply the plant with phosphate, nitrogen, mineral salts and water, and they guarantee a more extensive protection from biotic and abiotic stresses at both local and systemic level. On the other hand, the plant allows the fungus to access the photosynthetic carbon-compounds [4].A partly know
Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Renate Drechsler, Marc Straub, Mirko Doehnert, Hartmut Heinrich, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Daniel Brandeis
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-3-35
Abstract: To evaluate the specificity of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials, a twofold strategy was pursued: First, the efficacy of neurofeedback training was compared to a group training program for children with ADHD. Secondly, the extent of improvements observed in the neurofeedback group in relation to successful regulation of cortical activation was examined. Parents and teachers rated children's behaviour and executive functions before and after treatment. In addition, children underwent neuropsychological testing before and after training.According to parents' and teachers' ratings, children of the neurofeedback training group improved more than children who had participated in a group therapy program, particularly in attention and cognition related domains. On neuropsychological measures children of both groups showed similar improvements. However, only about half of the neurofeedback group learned to regulate cortical activation during a transfer condition without direct feedback. Behavioural improvements of this subgroup were moderately related to neurofeedback training performance, whereas effective parental support accounted better for some advantages of neurofeedback training compared to group therapy according to parents' and teachers' ratings.There is a specific training effect of neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials due to enhanced cortical control. However, non-specific factors, such as parental support, may also contribute to the positive behavioural effects induced by the neurofeedback training.Although stimulant medication has proven as the most efficacious strategy in the treatment of ADHD, there is a considerable need for effective treatment alternatives to help the sizeable number of children who do not respond to medication, suffer from intolerable side effects or whose parents are reluctant to administer stimulant medication to their children. In addition, stimulant medication seems to alleviate primary symptoms of ADHD in child
Beyond the Transcripts: What Controls Protein Variation?
Laura Straub
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001146
Heterochromatin Dynamics
Tobias Straub
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0000014
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