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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 357220 matches for " Daniel S. Wagner "
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Recent Extremes of Drought and Flooding in Amazonia: Vulnerabilities and Human Adaptation  [PDF]
Jose A. Marengo, Laura S. Borma, Daniel A. Rodriguez, Patrícia Pinho, Wagner R. Soares, Lincoln M. Alves
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.22009
Abstract: The present study focuses on the impacts of extreme drought and flooding situations in Amazonia, using level/discharge data from some rivers in the Amazon region as indicators of impacts. The last 10 years have featured various “once in a century” droughts and floods in the Amazon basin, which have affected human and natural systems in the region. We assess a history of such hazards based on river data, and discuss some of the observed impacts in terms of vulnerability of human and natural systems, as well as some of adaptation strategies implemented by regional and local governments to cope with them. A critical perspective of mitigation of drought and flood policies in Amazonia suggests that they have been mostly ineffective in reducing vulnerability for the majority of the population, constituting, perhaps, examples of maladaptation via the undermining of resilience.
Modeling Formamide Denaturation of Probe-Target Hybrids for Improved Microarray Probe Design in Microbial Diagnostics
L. Safak Yilmaz, Alexander Loy, Erik S. Wright, Michael Wagner, Daniel R. Noguera
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043862
Abstract: Application of high-density microarrays to the diagnostic analysis of microbial communities is challenged by the optimization of oligonucleotide probe sensitivity and specificity, as it is generally unfeasible to experimentally test thousands of probes. This study investigated the adjustment of hybridization stringency using formamide with the idea that sensitivity and specificity can be optimized during probe design if the hybridization efficiency of oligonucleotides with target and non-target molecules can be predicted as a function of formamide concentration. Sigmoidal denaturation profiles were obtained using fluorescently labeled and fragmented 16S rRNA gene amplicon of Escherichia coli as the target with increasing concentrations of formamide in the hybridization buffer. A linear free energy model (LFEM) was developed and microarray-specific nearest neighbor rules were derived. The model simulated formamide melting with a denaturant m-value that increased hybridization free energy (ΔG°) by 0.173 kcal/mol per percent of formamide added (v/v). Using the LFEM and specific probe sets, free energy rules were systematically established to predict the stability of single and double mismatches, including bulged and tandem mismatches. The absolute error in predicting the position of experimental denaturation profiles was less than 5% formamide for more than 90 percent of probes, enabling a practical level of accuracy in probe design. The potential of the modeling approach for probe design and optimization is demonstrated using a dataset including the 16S rRNA gene of Rhodobacter sphaeroides as an additional target molecule. The LFEM and thermodynamic databases were incorporated into a computational tool (ProbeMelt) that is freely available at http://DECIPHER.cee.wisc.edu.
The need for prognosticators in rheumatoid arthritis. Biological and clinical markers: where are we now?
Josef S Smolen, Daniel Aletaha, Johannes Grisar, Kurt Redlich, Günter Steiner, Oswald Wagner
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/ar2418
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by many different phenotypes. Joint involvement, although characteristically symmetrical, can range from a monoarticular pattern to a highly polyarticular pattern, and joint damage can span from mild cartilage degradation to progressive erosive disease of juxtarticular bone [1,2]. The course of RA may be cyclic or relentlessly active [3], and extraarticular manifestations such as rheumatoid nodules or vasculitis may be present. Patients may be seronegative or may have many different autoanti-bodies [4]. Variable combinations of all these characteristics create a broad heterogeneity that is partly manifested by differences in disease outcomes spanning from remission to severe disability and premature mortality [5,6]. When therapeutic targets are tested in clinical trials and are prescribed in clinical practice, however, RA is still regarded as a single disorder.Disease activity, joint damage and functional impairment form the anchor points of the natural history of RA, and are characterized by a triangular interrelationship (Figure 1). It is well established that continued disease activity leads to joint damage, resulting in reduction of physical functioning – and if damage is progressive, to irreversible disability [7]. For any clinical and biological marker to be useful, therefore, it should reflect one or more of the components of the RA triad.Traditionally, a marker in the present sense should constitute an indicator or a surrogate with diagnostic or prognostic utility [8] (Figure 1). A biological marker, then, would be involved in or would be a consequence of a pathological (or normal) biological process, a product of the organism that is measurable and thus bears the attribute of objectivity.In the context of rheumatic diseases, a typical biomarker could be a gene or some product of gene expression, an autoantibody, a cytokine, an acute phase reactant, a tissue abnormality possibly visualized immunhistochemically in a
Hermeneutical Engineering of Requirements  [PDF]
Wagner Varalda, ítalo S. Vega
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2017.52002
Abstract: The Software Engineering aims to develop, within the deadlines and costs established, quality software and that meets the needs of its users. To be made the definition of what the software should do (to establish its purpose), it included the execution of activity the Requirements Engineering, where the context of software to be developed is identified, examined and specified. All other activities of software development depend primarily on this activity. However, there is a problem increasingly in evidence: understand the context of software to be developed. This article aims to present a proposal to face this problem through the use of specific hermeneutical methods for the Requirements Engineering, which will help the software development team understand the original needs of the business to be attended. The basic idea is to produce a hermeneutic specification acceptable, which will be used for the extraction and the specification of the software requirements to be developed. In essence, the hermeneutics focuses on the true interpretation and understanding in contextualized of what is intended to know. The Hermeneutical Engineering of Requirements comes to be the result of the adequacy of methods hermeneutical to assist, specifically the activity of Engineering of Requirements.
Compositions into Powers of $b$: Asymptotic Enumeration and Parameters
Daniel Krenn,Stephan Wagner
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s00453-015-0061-3
Abstract: For a fixed integer base $b\geq2$, we consider the number of compositions of $1$ into a given number of powers of $b$ and, related, the maximum number of representations a positive integer can have as an ordered sum of powers of $b$. We study the asymptotic growth of those numbers and give precise asymptotic formulae for them, thereby improving on earlier results of Molteni. Our approach uses generating functions, which we obtain from infinite transfer matrices. With the same techniques the distribution of the largest denominator and the number of distinct parts are investigated.
Wagner Justiniano,Marcelo Francisco Arantes Pereira,Luís Carlos de Souza Amorim,Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2009, DOI: 10.5216/pat.v39i1.3311
Abstract: In order to determine the efficiency of neem oil on citrus leprosis mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), control, a laboratory test was conducted in Jaboticabal, S o Paulo State, Brazil, using a completely randomized design, with six treatments and six repetitions. Each plot was formed by one orange fruit (Pêra Rio variety). An area with 4 cm of diameter was delimited in each fruit, using Tanglefoot adhesive. The methodology consisted in submerging each fruit of each treatment in the solution prepared with neem oil (Nim-I-Go ), with 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% v/v; cyhexatin, with 0.025% v/v; and a check submerged in water. After 30 minutes of submersion, eight mites were placed in each fruit and evaluations were made after 24, 48, and 72 hours, determining the mite survival, mortality rate, and mites adhered to the glue. It was found that neem oil, at 1.5% v/v, showed high efficiency to control B. phoenicis on orange fruits, also obtaining the largest number of mites adhered to the glue. It may be concluded that, at this concentration, the product showed repellence action. Under laboratory conditions, the neem oil was effective for citrus leprosis mite control. KEY-WORDS: Citrus leprosis mite; Azadirachta indica.
Design and Optimization of Steel Car Body Structures via Local Laser-Strengthening  [PDF]
Markus Wagner, Axel Jahn, Eckhard Beyer, Daniel Balzani
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.85024
Abstract: Continuously rising demands of legislators require a significant reduction of CO2-emission and thus fuel consumption across all vehicle classes. In this context, lightweight construction materials and designs become a single most important factor. The main engineering challenge is to precisely adapt the material and component properties to the specific load situation. However, metallic car body structures using “Tailored blanks” or “Patchwork structures” meet these requirements only insufficiently, especially for complex load situations (like crash). An innovative approach has been developed to use laser beams to locally strengthen steel crash structures used in vehicle bodies. The method tailors the workpiece hardness and thus strength at selected locations to adjust the material properties for the expected load distribution. As a result, free designable 3D-strengthening-patterns surrounded by softer base metal zones can be realized by high power laser beams at high processing speed. The paper gives an overview of the realizable process window for different laser treatment modes using current high brilliant laser types. Furthermore, an efficient calculation model for determining the laser track properties (depth/width and flow curve) is shown. Based on that information, simultaneous FE modelling can be efficiently performed. Chassis components are both statically and cyclically loaded. Especially for these components, a modulation of the fatigue behavior by laser-treated structures has been investigated. Simulation and experimental results of optimized crash and deep drawing components with up to 55% improved level of performance are also illustrated.
Single-inclusive jet production in polarized pp collisions at RHIC to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy
Daniel de Florian,Federico Wagner
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-010-1286-6
Abstract: We perform the resummation of large logarithmic corrections to the partonic cross sections for single-inclusive jet production in polarized pp collisions. We reach the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy for this observable with the corresponding matching to the next-to-leading order calculation performed in the small-cone approximation. We present numerical results for the BNL-RHIC collider at \sqrt{S}=200 GeV and 500 GeV. We find an enhancement of the spin-dependent cross section, specially at high transverse momentum for the jet, resulting in a rather small increase of the double-spin asymmetry A_LL for this process.
Elimination of Hyperimaginaries and Stable Independence in simple CM-trivial theories
Daniel Palacin,Frank Olaf Wagner
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: In a simple CM-trivial theory every hyperimaginary is interbounded with a sequence of finitary hyperimaginaries. Moreover, such a theory eliminates hyperimaginaries whenever it eliminates finitary hyperimaginaries. In a supersimple CM-trivial theory, the independence relation is stable.
Rigidity, internality and analysability
Daniel Palacin,Frank Olaf Wagner
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We prove a version of Hrushovski's socle lemma for rigid groups in an arbitrary simple theory.
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