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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 353903 matches for " Daniel S. Alemu "
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Dysfunctional Organization: The Leadership Factor  [PDF]
Daniel S. Alemu
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2016.51001
Abstract: In an extension of studies on dysfunctional organizations, vis-à-vis leadership, the current research examines leaders of dysfunctional and functional organizations in view of the functions of leadership. Sixteen variables related to leadership functions were tested to examine the relationship between leadership and organizational level of functionality and the differences between the characteristics of leaders of functional and dysfunctional organizations. A strong positive correlation was found between effective leadership and organizational level of functionality and a statistically significant difference was found between the characteristics of leaders of functional and dysfunctional organizations.
Comparative Analysis of Instructional Language Issues in Ethiopia and the United States  [PDF]
Daniel S. Alemu, Abebayehu A. Tekleselassie
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.24058
Abstract: Crafting and implementing language policies that address the needs of language minority students have always been challenging. The major challenges include addressing such concerns as: How do we address the language needs of minority students, while keeping the academic standards high? Should the role of minority langue be cultural maintenance or the facilitation of instruction through the mother tongue? To what extent does the use of minority language prepare the child for the global world? Through comparative analysis of practices in the United States and Ethiopia, this paper explores the background, approaches, and challenges/controversies in implementing polices that cater for language minority children in the two countries.
No Association of Cryptococcal Antigenemia with Poor Outcomes among Antiretroviral Therapy-Experienced HIV-Infected Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Christopher C. Smitson, Admasu Tenna, Mulugeta Tsegaye, Abere S. Alemu, Daniel Fekade, Abraham Aseffa, Henry M. Blumberg, Russell R. Kempker
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085698
Abstract: Introduction There are limited data on clinical outcomes of ART-experienced patients with cryptococcal antigenemia. We assessed clinical outcomes of a predominantly asymptomatic, ART-experienced cohort of HIV+ patients previously found to have a high (8.4%) prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia. Methods The study took place at All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Rehabilitative Training Centre and Black Lion Hospital HIV Clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A retrospective study design was used to perform 12-month follow-up of 367 mostly asymptomatic HIV-infected patients (CD4<200 cells/μl) with high levels of antiretroviral therapy use (74%) who were previously screened for cryptococcal antigenemia. Medical chart abstraction was performed approximately one year after initial screening to obtain data on clinic visit history, ART use, CD4 count, opportunistic infections, and patient outcome. We evaluated the association of cryptococcal antigenemia and a composite poor outcome of death and loss to follow-up using logistic regression. Results Overall, 323 (88%) patients were alive, 8 (2%) dead, and 36 (10%) lost to follow-up. Among the 31 patients with a positive cryptococcal antigen test (titers ≥1:8) at baseline, 28 were alive (all titers ≤1:512), 1 dead and 2 lost to follow-up (titers ≥1:1024). In multivariate analysis, cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.3–4.8). A baseline CD4 count <100 cells/μl was associated with an increased risk of a poor outcome (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4–6.7) while an increasing CD4 count (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1–0.3) and receiving antiretroviral therapy at last follow-up visit (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02–0.2) were associated with a reduced risk of a poor outcome. Conclusions Unlike prior ART-na?ve cohorts, we found that among persons receiving ART and with CD4 counts <200 cells/μl, asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome.
Influence of Planting Date on Seed Protein, Oil, Sugars, Minerals, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Soybean under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Environments  [PDF]
Nacer Bellaloui, Krishna N. Reddy, Anne M. Gillen, Daniel K. Fisher, Alemu Mengistu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.25085
Abstract: Information on the effect of planting date and irrigation on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition in the Early Soybean Production System (ESPS) is deficient, and what is available is inconclusive. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in soybean grown under irrigated (I) and non-irrigated (NI) conditions. A 2-yr field experiment was conducted in Stoneville, MS in 2007 and 2008. Soybean was planted during second week of April (early planting) and second week of May (late planting) each year. Results showed that under irrigated condition, early planting increased seed oil (up to 16% increase) and oleic acid (up to 22.8% increase), but decreased protein (up to 6.6% decrease), linoleic (up to 10.9% decrease) and linolenic acids (up to 27.7% decrease) compared to late planting. Under I conditions, late planting resulted in higher sucrose and raffinose and lower stachyose compared with early planting. Under NI conditions, seed of early planting had higher protein (up to 4% increase) and oleic acid (up to 25% increase) and lower oil (up to10.8% decrease) and linolenic acids (up to 13% decrease) than those of late planting. Under NI, stachyose concentration was higher than sucrose or raffinose, especially in early planting. Under I, early planting resulted in lower leaf and seed B, Fe, and P concentrations compared with those of late planting. Under NI, however, early planting resulted in higher accumulation of leaf B and P, but lower seed B and P compared with those of late planting. This research demonstrated that both irrigation and planting date have a significant influence on seed protein, oil, unsaturated fatty acids, and sugars. Our results suggest that seed of late planting accumulate more B, P, and Fe than those of early planting, and this could be a beneficial gain. Limited translocation of nutrients from leaves to seed under NI is undesirable. Soybean producers may use this information to maintain yield and seed quality, and soybean breeders to select for seed quality traits and mineral translocation efficiency in stress environments.
Effect of Shade on Seed Protein, Oil, Fatty Acids, and Minerals in Soybean lines Varying in Seed Germinability in the Early Soybean Production System  [PDF]
Nacer Bellaloui, James R. Smith, Anne M. Gillen, Daniel K. Fisher, Alemu Mengistu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.31008
Abstract: The cause of poor seed quality (germination) of soybean produced in the Early Soybean Production System in the midsouth U.S.A. is still not completely understood. Temperature, solar radiation, and soybean genotype may all be important factors involved. The objective of this research was to evaluate seed composition, mineral level, and nitrogen assimilation in high and low germinability soybean plant introductions in a full-sunlight (unshaded) and a low-light intensity (shaded) environments. Shade netting was employed in field plots that reduced light intensity by about 50% and air temperature by about 10?F/6?C (10%). A two-year field experiment was conducted on soybean accessions with high germinability (PI 587982A and PI 603723), low germinability (PI 80480 and PI 84976-1), and on soybean cultivars (DSR-3100 RR STS and Pella 86). Results showed that shade resulted in higher total oil, linoleic and linolenic acids, and lower protein and oleic acid. Shade also resulted in lower nitrogen assimilation, leaf chlorophyll concentration, but unshade resulted in higher total seed boron, iron, and nitrogen concentrations. Seed structural boron was positively correlated with germination and protein. Structural boron percentage was consistently higher under shade than under unshade in PI 80480, PI 84976-1, DSR-3100 RR STS, and Pella 86, but consistently higher under unshade than under shade in higher germinability lines PI 587982A and PI 603723, suggesting that different distribution mechanisms of structural boron exist between genotypes. The positive correlation between germination and structural B and between protein and structural B signify a possible role of B in seed quality traits. Our research demonstrated that light intensity, combined with temperature, can alter seed constituents. Higher germinability lines had higher germination rates and lower percentages of hardseededness, desirable traits for soybean seed.
Relationships between Microsclerotia Content and Hyperspectral Reflectance Data in Soybean Tissue Infected by Macrophomina phaseolina  [PDF]
Reginald S. Fletcher, James R. Smith, Alemu Mengistu, Jeffery D. Ray
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.525390
Abstract: Alternative methods are needed to assess the severity of charcoal rot disease [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] in soybean [Glycine max (L.)] plant tissue. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between light reflectance properties and microsclerotia content of soybean stem and root tissue. Understanding that relationship could lead to using spectral reflectance data as a tool to assess the severity of charcoal rot disease in soybean plants, thus reducing human bias associated with qualitative analysis of soybean plant tissue and cost and time issues connected with quantitative analysis. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements (400-2490 nm) were obtained with a non-imaging spectroradiometer of non-diseased and charcoal rot diseased ground stem and root tissue samples of six soybean genotypes (“Clark”, “LD00-3309”, “LG03- 4561-14”, “LG03-4561-19”, “Saline”, and “Y227-1”). Relationships between the reflectance measurements and tissue microsclerotia content were evaluated with Spearman correlation (rs) analysis (p < 0.05). Moderate (rs = ±0.40 to ±0.59), strong (rs = ±0.60 to ±0.79), and very strong (rs = ±0.80 to ±1.00) negative and positive statistically significant (p < 0.05) monotonic relationships were observed between tissue spectral reflectance values and tissue microsclerotia content. Near-infrared and shortwave-infrared wavelengths had the best relationships with microsclerotia content in the ground tissue samples, with consistent results obtained with near-infrared wavelengths in that decreases in near-infrared spectral reflectance values were associated with increases in microsclerotia content in the stem and root tissue of the soybean plants. The findings of this study provided evidence that relationships exist between tissue spectral reflectance and tissue microsclerotia content of soybean plants, supporting spectral reflectance data as a means for assessing variation of microsclerotia content in soybean plants. Future research should focus on the modelling capabilities of the selected wavelengths and on the feasibility of using these wavelengths in machine learning algorithms to differentiate non-diseased from charcoal rot diseased tissue.
Integrated Watershed Management and Sedimentation  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74043

Environmental development and protection measures such as feasibility studies, land-use planning and soil and water conservation are some of the issues that need to be considered in watersheds management. Apparently, integrated watershed management is emerging as an approach for the sustained development and management of natural resources. The integral enactment of different environmental frameworks, strategies and policies could positively impact watershed- based developmental approaches. Sediment which is brought through water erosion can hamper the proper functioning of waterways as well as the quality of water in dams. Knowhow on soil erosion and the sedimentation process is among the requisites that need to be considered for the control of sedimentation. Other elements like climate, edaphic factors, land management, topography, and land cover, etc. will also determine the sedimentation process. Integrated Watershed Management approach is a worthy approach to manage the ecological, social and economic watershed development challenges in countries like Ethiopia. Thus, this article is intended to assess watershed characteristics that will help to explore the possibilities of reducing sedimentation and its related effects.

Sustainable Land Management  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74045

In one way or another, one out of three people are being affected by land degradation. It is estimated that, about every year, 75 billion tonnes of soil material are being lost worldwide as a result of land degradation. Recent findings also showed that about 2 billion hectares of land were severely degraded, in some cases in an irreversible way, all these caused a severe damage to local ecologies as well as contributed a lot for climate change and its associated effects on the wellbeing of humanity. Apart from this, the major portion of most developing countries population are still dependent on the un-mechanized and primitive forms agriculture, livestock production, forestry and fishery, and their livelihood and options for economic development are directly linked to the quality of the land and its resources. The objective of this article is to reaffirm the role of Sustainable Land Management in the process of agricultural development, the main source of livelihood in the developing countries. The paper initially explored the basic concept and principles of sustainable management. Causes of land degradation, the prime challenge of sustainable land management and development are also dealt in detail.

Incidence and Predictors of Tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS Infected Patients: A Five-Year Retrospective Follow-Up Study  [PDF]
Mulugeta Dalbo, Alemu Tamiso
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2016.62010
Abstract: Background: Despite increased deliverance of antiretroviral therapy (ART), morbidity and mortality from TB are still predominant among HIV/AIDS infected patients in Ethiopia. Thus, current study aimed to determine magnitude and predictors of tuberculosis among cohort of HIV infected patients at Arba Minch General Hospital, Ethiopia, 2015. Methods: Hospital based retrospective follow-up study was conducted among study population which was HIV/AIDS infected individuals registered from September 2007 to 2013. The data were collected using structured data abstraction form and four ART trained nurses were used to abstract the data. The data were checked for completeness, cleaned and entered into Epi Info 7.0 and analyzed using SPSS version (IBM-21). Results were summarized by using table of frequency, graph, and measure of central tendency. Statistical significance was inferred at P-value ≤ 0.05. Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine predictors. Result: Four hundred ninety six patient’s charts were abstracted. Cumulative and incidence density of tuberculosis were 21.4% (95% CI: 21.3, 21.44) and 5.36 per 100 person year respectively. Cigarette smokers (AOR: 2.82, 95% CI (1.27 - 6.27)), household with family size of 3 - 4 (AOR: 2.26, 95% CI (1.14 - 4.50)), baseline WHO clinical stage III (AOR: 20.26, 95% CI (7.09 - 57.6)) and IV (AOR: 22.9, 95% CI (6.91 - 76.4)) and heamoglobin level of <10 (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI (1.22 - 5.33)) were important predictors (risk factors) of tuberculosis among HIV
Household Energy Demand and Its Impact on the Ecological Capital of Nech Sar National Park, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.710112
Abstract: Household energy demand is among the prime problems that cause deforestation. The use of fuel wood in the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America is be-lieved to play a key role for the razing of forests and the degradation of associated biodiversity and other land resources. High population growth, increased energy demand, urbanization, infrastructure development, etc. are among the factors that exacerbate the current rate of deforestation in Ethiopia. This growing demand is also posing a threat to the remaining natural capital and associated wildlife of the country’s national parks. NechSar national park, a jewel in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia is not in different to this threat. The issue is calling for an urgent interference in the provision of environment friendly energy sources, afforestation programmes, raising the level of awareness on climate change, etc. This study is therefore, aimed at exploring the level of household energy demand interference on the woody vegetation of NechSar Park and promoting the use of environment friendly and energy saving technologies in the vicinity of the park area and beyond.
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