Abstract:
We provide a lightning review of the construction of (generalised) orbifolds [arXiv:0909.5013, arXiv:1210.6363] of two-dimensional quantum field theories in terms of topological defects, along the lines of [arXiv:1307.3141]. This universal perspective has many applications, some of which we sketch in the examples of 2d Yang-Mills theory, Landau-Ginzburg models, and rational CFT.

Abstract:
Orbifolding two-dimensional quantum field theories by a symmetry group can involve a choice of discrete torsion. We apply the general formalism of `orbifolding defects' to study and elucidate discrete torsion for topological field theories. In the case of Landau-Ginzburg models only the bulk sector had been studied previously, and we re-derive all known results. We also introduce the notion of `projective matrix factorisations', show how they naturally describe boundary and defect sectors, and we further illustrate the efficiency of the defect-based approach by explicitly computing RR charges. Roughly half of our results are not restricted to Landau-Ginzburg models but hold more generally, for any topological field theory. In particular we prove that for a pivotal bicategory, any two objects of its orbifold completion that have the same base are orbifold equivalent. Equivalently, from any orbifold theory (including those based on nonabelian groups) the original unorbifolded theory can be obtained by orbifolding via the `quantum symmetry defect'.

Abstract:
We study orbifolds of two-dimensional topological field theories using defects. If the TFT arises as the twist of a superconformal field theory, we recover results on the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors of the orbifold theory as well as bulk-boundary correlators from a novel, universal perspective. This entails a structure somewhat weaker than ordinary TFT, which however still describes a sector of the underlying conformal theory. The case of B-twisted Landau-Ginzburg models is discussed in detail, where we compute charge vectors and superpotential terms for B-type branes. Our construction also works in the absence of supersymmetry and for generalised "orbifolds" that need not arise from symmetry groups. In general this involves a natural appearance of Hochschild (co)homology in a 2-categorical setting, in which among other things we provide simple presentations of Serre functors and a further generalisation of the Cardy condition.

Abstract:
This article discusses the theoretical concepts underpinning a multimodal approach to poetry teaching and considers a number of ways in which this can be adopted in practice. It discusses what is entailed by the concept of multimodality and examines the claims made about the benefits of employing a multimodal approach. It reviews the literature on multimodality and examines how teachers may blend a variety of techniques and resources in order not just to engage their students with poetry but also to activate language learning. In particular, this article examines how by tapping students’ visual and digital literacy skills they are enabled to create video poems, podcasts, hypertexts and wikis, all of which represent new ways of using language and experiencing poetry. Through constant reference to the research carried out so far, this article seeks to show how by means of a multimodal approach poetry can act as a springboard for the development of students’ language proficiency and creative engagement.

For a two-dimensional complex vector space, the spin matrices can be
calculated directly from the angular momentum commutator definition. The 3
Pauli matrices are retrieved and 23 other triplet solutions are found. In the
three-dimensional space, we show that no matrix fulfills the spin equations and
preserves the norm of the vectors. By using a Clifford geometric algebra it is
possible in the four-dimensional spacetime (STA) to retrieve the 24 different
spins 1/2. In this framework, spins 1/2 are rotations characterized by multivectors
composed of 3 vectors and 3 bivectors. Spins 1 can be defined as rotations
characterized by 4 vectors, 6 bivectors and 4 trivectors which result in unit
multivectors which preserve the norm. Let us note that this simple derivation
retrieves the main spin properties of particle physics.

Abstract:
The 21st century keeps huge challenges for the system “city”. Shortage of resources and world population growth forces architects to think in spaces with increasingly more structural linkages. No era has shaped the system of a city like the oil age did. Its grown structures are dependent from cheap and easy to produce petroleum. The postmodern city, facing the end of cheap and abundant oil, is now dependent from this finite resource. To minimize the dependency from hydrocarbon energy it is necessary to increase urban density, to switch to renewable energy production and to create new spaces for multifunctional purposes. An essential problem of urban agglomeration, though, is the fact that distances between food production and consumption have increased drastically in the last fifty years. Cheap oil made it possible to implement a global food transportation
network and it also supported intensive monocultural food production. Today’s food no more gets bought from local markets, but from labels. Its value is dependent from the brand-image, represented from the tertiary sector. The end of cheap fossil fuels carries a huge potential for architects and urban planners—we can move away from representing abstract, non-spatial processes and identities but creating spaces for dynamic local interactions. A promising typus for this might be the Vertical Farm.

Abstract:
This paper presents an information theoretic approach to the concept of intelligence in the computational sense. We introduce a probabilistic framework from which computation alintelligence is shown to be an entropy minimizing process at the local level. Using this new scheme, we develop a simple data driven clustering example and discuss its applications.

In this paper, we continue
the efforts of the Computational Theory of Intelligence (CTI) by extending concepts
to include computational processes in terms of Genetic Algorithms (GA’s) and
Turing Machines (TM’s). Active, Passive, and Hybrid Computational Intelligence processes
are also introduced and discussed. We consider the ramifications of the assumptions
of CTI with regard to the qualities of reproduction and virility. Applications
to Biology, Computer Science and Cyber Security are also discussed.

Abstract:
This
paper discusses quantum mechanical schemas for describing waves with
non-abelian phases, Fock spaces of annihilation-creation operators for these
structures, and the Feynman recipe for obtaining descriptions of particle
interactions with external fields.

Abstract:
We present here a realization of Hurwitz algebra in terms of 2 × 2 vector matrices which maintain the correspondence between the geometry of vector spaces that is used in the classical physics and the algebraic foundation underlying quantum theory. The multiplication rule we use is a modification of the one originally introduced by M. Zorn. We demonstrate that our multiplication is not intrinsically non-associative; the realization of the real and complex numbers is commutative and associative, the real quaternions maintain associativity and the real octonion matrices form an alternative algebra. Extension to the calculus of the matrices (with Hurwitz algebra valued matrix elements) of the arbitrary dimensions is straightforward. We briefly discuss applications of the obtained results to extensions of standard Hilbert space formulation in quantum physics and to alternative wave mechanical formulation of the classical field theory.