Abstract:
An orbital ordering, often observed in Mott insulators with orbital degeneracy, is usually supposed to disappear with doping, e.g. in the ferromagnetic metallic phase of manganites. We propose that the orbital ordering of a novel type may exist in such situation: there may occur ferro orbital ordering of complex orbitals (linear superposition of basic orbitals d_x^2-y^2 and d_z^2 with complex coefficients). Despite the perfect orbital ordering, such state still retains cubic symmetry and thus would not induce any structural distortion. This novel state can resolve many problems in the physics of CMR manganites and can also exist in other doped Mott insulators with Jahn-Teller ions.

Abstract:
An orbital ordering occurs in many transition metal compounds with Jahn-Teller ions and plays an important role in these materials. At the same time, exchange interactions in orbitally degenerate systems are inherently frustrated, even in materials with simple crystal lattices. We discuss the origin of this frustration, considering in detail materials with a cubic and triangular lattice of transition metal ions. We also discuss possible types of ground states of such systems, e.g., disordered orbital liquids and ordering due to the order-from-disorder mechanism.

Abstract:
We discuss a new mechanism of orbital ordering, which in charge transfer insulators is more important than the usual exchange interactions and which can make the very type of the ground state of a charge transfer insulator, i.e. its orbital and magnetic ordering, different from that of a Mott-Hubbard insulator. This purely electronic mechanism allows us to explain why orbitals in Jahn-Teller materials typically order at higher temperatures than spins, and to understand the type of orbital ordering in a number of materials, e.g. K_2CuF_4, without invoking the electron-lattice interaction.

Abstract:
We suggest that the phase transition observed in NaV_2O_5 at T_c = 34K is not a spin-Peierls transition, but a charge ordering transition, related to the formal presence in this system of equal number of V^4+ and V^4- ions. Below T_c, V^4+ ions form a zigzag structure, which is consistent with the experimentally observed doubling of the lattice period in a and b directions. We show that this charge ordering also results in the alternation of spin exchange constants along the b-direction, which opens a gap in the spin excitation spectrum. We emphasize the role of lattice distortions around V ions both in the formation of the charged ordered state and in the spin-gap opening.

Abstract:
We consider the double-exchange for systems in which doped electrons occupy degenerate orbitals, treating the realistic situation with double degenerate $e_g$ orbitals. We show that the orbital degeneracy leads in general to formation of anisotropic magnetic structures and that in particular, depending on the doping concentration, the layered magnetic structures of the A-type and chain-like structures of the C-type are stabilized. The phase-diagram that we obtain provides an explanation for the experimentally observed magnetic structures of some over-doped (electron-doped) manganites of the type Nd$_{1-x}$Sr$_x$MnO$_3$, Pr$_{1-x}$Sr$_x$MnO$_3$ and Sm$_{1-x}$Ca$_x$MnO$_3$ with $x > 0.5$.

Abstract:
In this contribution to the special issue on multiferroics we focus on multiferroicity driven by different forms of charge ordering. We will present the generic mechanisms by which charge ordering can induce ferroelectricity in magnetic systems. There is a number of specific classes of materials for which this is relevant. We will discuss in some detail $(i)$ perovskite manganites of the type (PrCa)MnO$_3$, $(ii)$ the complex and interesting situation in magnetite Fe$_3$O$_4$, $(iii)$ strongly ferroelectric frustrated LuFe$_2$O$_4$, $(iv)$ an example of a quasi one-dimensional organic system. All these are "type-I" multiferroics, in which ferroelectricity and magnetism have different origin and occur at different temperatures. In the second part of this article we discuss "type-II" multiferroics, in which ferroelectricity is completely {\it due to} magnetism, but with charge ordering playing important role, such as $(v)$ the newly-discovered multiferroic Ca$_3$CoMnO$_6$, $(vi)$ possible ferroelectricity in rare earth perovskite nickelates of the type RNiO$_3$, $(vii)$ multiferroic properties of manganites of the type RMn$_2$O$_5$, $(viii)$ of perovskite manganites with magnetic E-type ordering and $(ix)$ of bilayer manganites.

Abstract:
We study the competition between the spin-Peierls and the antiferromagnetic ordering in disordered quasi-one-dimensional spin systems. We obtain the temperature vs disorder-strength phase diagram, which qualitatively agrees with recent experiments on doped CuGeO_3.

Abstract:
We show that in transition metal compounds containing structural metal dimers there may exist in the presence of different orbitals a special state with partial formation of singlets by electrons on one orbital, while others are effectively decoupled and may give e.g. long-range magnetic order or stay paramagnetic. Similar situation can be realized in dimers spontaneously formed at structural phase transitions, which can be called orbital-selective Peierls transition. This can occur in case of strongly nonuniform hopping integrals for different orbitals and small intra-atomic Hund's rule coupling JH. Yet another consequence of this picture is that for odd number of electrons per dimer there exist competition between double exchange mechanism of ferromagnetism, and the formation of singlet dimer by electron on one orbital, with remaining electrons giving a net spin of a dimer. The first case is realized for strong Hund's rule coupling, typical for 3d compounds, whereas the second is more plausible for 4d-5d compounds. We discuss some implications of these phenomena, and consider examples of real systems, in which orbital-selective phase seems to be realized.

Abstract:
We study a one-dimensional Hamiltonian consisting of coupled SU(2) spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Using the density matrix renormalization group, we calculate the phase-diagram and the ground state correlation functions for this model. We find that, in addition to the ferromagnetic and power-law antiferromagnetic phases for spin and orbital degrees of freedom, this model has a gapless line extending from the ferromagnetic phase to the Bethe ansatz solvable SU(4) critical point, and a gapped phase with doubly degenerate ground states which form alternating spin and orbital singlets. The spin-gap and the order parameters are evaluated and the relevance to several recently discovered spin-gap materials is discussed.

Abstract:
We review some aspects related to orbital degrees of freedom in manganites. The Mn$^{3+}$ ions in these compounds have double orbital degeneracy and are strong Jahn-Teller ions, causing structural distortions and orbital ordering. We discuss ordering mechanisms and the consequences of orbital order. The additional degeneracy of low-energy states and the extreme sensitivity of the chemical bonds to the spatial orientation of the orbitals result in a variety of competing interactions. This quite often leads to frustration of classical ordered states and to the enhancement of quantum effects. Quantum fluctuations and related theoretical models are briefly discussed, including the occurence of resonating orbital bonds in the metallic phase of the colossal magnetoresistance manganites.